UMLANDO WOKWENANWA KWETHESTAMENTE ELISHA EZILWIMINI ZALO ZENDABUKO

18.02.2014
IZITHOMBE: Kuyasetshenzwa 2010IZITHOMBE: Kuyasetshenzwa 2010

1. IsiGriki:

Selokhu kwathi nhlo imibhalo equkethwe eThestamenteni elisha iyakopishwa ihunyushwe yedluliselwe kwabanye abangakabi nayo eyabo ukuze bakwazi ukuzifundela. Zimbalwa izincwadi zasemandulo okwandé kangaka amakhophi namawele azo njengawalena.

Kuhambé kwahamba-ke kwabonakala ukuthi amakhophi ayaphambuka ezindaweni eziningi encwadini engumsuka wawo ngenxa yamaphutha ekukopisheni kanti-ke futhi ezinye izingxenye zazike ziguqulwe nje ngamabomu ukuze zifundeke zizwakale ngokuhambisana nezinguquko ezintsha emphakathini. La makhophi aphambukayo emsukeni wale ncwadi esiyibiza namuhla ngokuthi yiThestamente elisha siwabiza ngokuthi yizimpambosi. Sezizonke-ke lezi zimpambosi kulinganiswa ukuthi zicela ezinkulungwaneni ezingamakhulu amabili (= 200 000); iningi lazo nokho liphambuka emsukeni kuphela-nje ngendlela indaba eziyibeka ngayo (= ngelaka), zimbalwa eziguqula umqondo nenhloso yombhalo (= umbiko/ingqikithi).

Abantu benkolo yobuKhristu baqalé unyaka ulé (= first and second century) ukuzama ukufunisisa umsuka wale ncwadi. Ngenxa yentshisekelo nenkuthalo yabaningi eyayidinga isineke nokucophelela kanye nobambiswano, sesinayo- ke namuhla futhi le ncwadi engumsuka olwimini lwayo lwendabuko, isiGriki (novum testamentum graece). Ifana ncamashi nalena eyayisetshenziswa emandulo (second century) kungakabikho makhophi.

Ukushicilelwa kwezincwadi ngomshini kuvela zolo lokhu. Le ncwadi-ke nayo kwadingeka ishicilelwe ukuze yandiswe masinya kanti futhi ifundeke kalula. Lokho kwaveza nesidingo sokuwuhlela umbhalo, ube nezahluko namavesi, ukuze ofundayo akwazi njalo ukusheshe ayithole indima ayicingayo. Kwenziwa konke lokhu-nje awukaphethwa lo mkhankaso esikhuluma ngawo lapha ngenhla; yingakho nje-ke kukhona laphaya nalaphaya isidingo sokuwuhlela kabusha umbhalo, izahluko namavesi anombolwe kabusha. Amavesi angena ngephutha (noma afakwa ngabakopishi ngamabomu ngezizathu ezahlukeneyo) asengahlungeka-ke.

2. IsiLathini:

Kwasemandulo (second century) kwakunabakhuthalele ukuyithatha le ncwadi bayihumushele kwezinye izilwimi: kolwesiSiliya, isiKhobthishi nesiLathini. Le mizamo yabo isemqoka namuhla uma sizama ukubuyela emuva emsukeni wale ndaba.

Yayisiphethiwe imizamo yokuhumushela olwimini lwesiLathini, amabandla eNyakatho-Afrika naseNingizimu yaseFransi naseNtaliyane ayesekade azifundela kweyawo incwadi ebhalwé ngesiLathini esidala, iVethus-Lathina (= „vetus latina“), ngenkathi inhloko yeBandla lamaKhatholika yangaleso sikhathi, uPhapha uDamasusu wokuqala (Pope Damasus I.), ijuba isazi kwezenkolo uHironimusi (Hieronymus) ukuthi ahumushele esiLathinini.

Ngonyaka ka-384 uHironimusi wayeseqedile ukuhumusha amavangeli omane; wawethula ke emphakathini. Akwaziwa-ke nokho nòma lezi ezinye izincwadi eziseThestamenteni elisha nazo zabukezwa nguye noma umsebenzi waqedelwa ngabanye yini. Yilo-ke leli Thestamente elisha lesiLathini elaziwa ngokuthi yiVulgatha (= „Vulgata“), okungukuthi ngelikawonke-wonke.

Kwaya ngokuya kwanda ukusetshenziswa kwesiLathini esikhundleni kwesiGriki ezinkonzweni nasempilweni yeBandla; nenhloko yeBandla ngaleso sikhathi, uPhapha uDamasusu, yakhuthaza ukuthi kusetshenziswe ikakhulu iVulgatha ezinkonzweni kwelaseRoma. Uqhekeko lweBandla olwavela ngaleso sikhathi phakathi kweBandla laseMpumalanga nelaseNtshonalanga (eYurophu) kwenazezela ekuthuthukiseni ukusetshenziswa kwesiLathini emazweni aseNtshonalanga.

OMartin Luther-ke nezinye izikhuthali ekucandulweni kabusha kweBandla nemfundiso yalo (reformation) bathi beqhamuka nombono wokuthi kungakuhle kufundisiswe kabusha ukuthi uthini umbhalo weThestamente elisha ngolwimi lwawo lwendabuko (isiGriki), zabahleka usulu iziphathi-mandla zeSonto; kwathi embizweni enkulu yeSonto eyayihlangene eThendele (= „Trent“) ngonyaka ka-1546, zavumelana ngokuthi iVulgatha yiyona engugó (= „indala, siyayazi, sikhule ngayo, ayihluphé muntu!“) ngakho ke kufanele kube yiyo yodwa esetshenziswa enkonzweni yabakholwayo (= „authentic“).

Namuhla ke nokho seligaya ngomunye umhlathi: Ngenxa yezimpambosi namaphutha amaningi atholakala kuVulgatha, sekuyaye kusetshenziswe le ncwadi engumsuka esolwimini lwesiGriki esikhuluma ngayo lapha ngenhla, inovum testamentum graece, uma kuqondwé ukusondela embhalweni ngokucishe kube wuqobo lwawo impela. Emabandleni amaKhatholika abambelele endleleni yokukhonza ngokwesiLathini (roman liturgy) kusetshenziswa iVulgatha entsha.

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