umlando wekwenanwa kwezincwadi zeThestamente eliDala

16.05.2021
umlando wekwenanwa kwezincwadi zeThestamente eliDala

UMLANDO

WOKWENANWA   KWEZINCWADI   ZETHESTAMENTE   ELIDALA

ZITHATHWA  OLWIMINI   LWAZO   LWENDABUKO

nguBen Khumalo-Seegelken

Liwelela neno-nje ibhaybheli ngokufika kwabaqhamuka eYurophu kuleli ikakhulukazi kusukela onyakeni we-1652 nangokungena kwabeNtumo kwelakwaZulu ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sombuso wenkosi uMpande (1840-1872), sekukaningi lihunyushwa, libukezwa, libhalwa kabusha, ledluliselwa phambili. Lifika-nje kithi seliwumqulu onxa-mbili: ithestamente elidala (ThD) nethestamente elisha (ThSh). Lifika liphethwe ikakhulukazi ngabakhuluma ulwimi lwesiNgisi, bevela eNgilandi naseMelika, nabakhuluma olwesiJalimane, bevela eJalimane, nabo babekade belemukele kwabalilanda olwimini lwesiHebheru nolwesiGrikhi,  bafundafunda  isiZulu, baqala-ke balihumusha ngokuya ngokuya laze laphelela.

Onyakeni we-1959 wabhalwa kabusha wonke lo mzamo owawusuwenziwe, wabizwa ngokuthi „IBHAYIBHELI  ELIYINGCWELE“.

Nanku-ke umlando walo:

  1. IsiHebheru („imazolethi“)

Cishe zonke izincwadi eziqukethwe ethestamenteni elidala (ThD) ekusukeni kwazo zaxoxwa, zalotshwa ngolwimi lwesiHebheru. Zimbalwa-nje ezavela ngolwesiAramu (bheka iphuzu lesihlanu lapha ngezansi).

Indlela yokulotshwa kolwimi lwesiHebheru esetshenziswa ngokuvamile ngabafundi bezenkolo ekucwaningeni kwabo yaziwa ngokuthi yimazolethi.  Kuthiwa yavezwa ukukhuthala kwezingqapheli zokugcinwa kwamasiko enkolo yobuJuda ezazidume ngokucophelela kwazo ekuqopheni umlando, zibizwa ngokuthi zingamaMazolethi („Matsorethim“).

AmaMazolethi aqala emandulo (6th – 10th century BC) ukucubungula nokubukeza izincwadi esizibiza namuhla ngokuthi ngezethestamente elidala, ezama ukuthola ukuthi leyo naleyo ncwadi yayivelephi, nini, yahamba yaze yagcina isilotshwé ngubani,  kanjani njengoba isiyincwadi nje.

Imiphumela yemizamo yabo yagcina ibonakele:  Kwathi kuqambe kushaya unyaka wekhulu uJesu abakhona (100 AD); wawusuboshiwe ususetshenizwa umqulu wezincwadi esizibiza namuhla ngokuthi yithestamente elidala (TD); zibhalwe njengoba kwakwethenjwa ukuthi zazinjalo eminyakeni eyikhulu ngaphambi kukaJesu (100 BC).

Ngendlela eyayejwayelekile yokubhalwa kolwimi lwesiHebheru nezilwimi ezihlobene nalo kunamachashaza asho onkamisa(o-„a-e-i-o-u“) aphelekezela izinhlamvu ezehlukene zombhalo ezimele ongwaqa (o-„b-c-d-f-g“); ngaleso zikhathi-ke kwakungandile ukuwafaka lawo machashaza. Wayeziqagelela-nje ofunda umbhalo ukuthi igama liphunyiselwa kuthiweni (isibonelo: „gd“ = „ugodo/igade/igidi/ugudi …“;  „zl“ = „zala, zula, zila, izolo, izulu, izele,“ ).

AmaMazolethi asungula isu lamachashaza nemidwana eyatholakala ilusizo kusukela lapho. Kuze kube namuhla lokhu-ke le ndlela yokubhala isiHebheru enamachashaza nemidwana ekhomba onkamisa, siyibiza ngokuthi yimazolethi.

Lo mbhalo wemazolethi esihlala sibuyela kuwo kwethukeka kutholakala laphaya nalaphaya iphutha ohlelweni lwamachashaza nemidwa ikakhulukazi uma kuqhathaniswa nemibhalo eyayivele isikhona kungakavunyelwana ngemazolethi (njengombhalo waseKhumrani „Qumran“ ovunjululwa zolo lokhu ngo-1947 lapho wawukade uthukuzwe khona mandulo). Ichashaza lilinye („ugodo“ noma „igidi“; „izele“ noma „izulu“) liphendula ingqondo yonke yomusho! Abafundi bezenkolo bahlala phansi-ke babonisane uma kuvela umahluko ekuqhathanisweni kwemibhalo ukuze kuvunyelwane ngokulungisa amaphutha nokubukeza nokubhala kabusha lezo zincwadi ezithintene nalokho.

  1. IsiGriki („isebthwaginta“)

Abantu benkolo yobuJuda ababeqube kwelezizwe eGibhithe nakwamanye amazwe aqaqele uLwandle iMedithera eminyakeni engamakhulu amathathu kuya ekhulwini ngaphambi kokuzalwa kukaJesu (300 – 100 BC) babekhuluma bekhonza ngesiGrikhi. Kanjalo-ke kwavela izikhuthali phakathi kwabo ezazijuba, zahumusha zonke izincwadi zokholo esizibiza namuhla ngokuthi yithestamente elidala (TD), zazifaka olwimini lwesiGriki ukuze zisetshenziswe enkonzweni nasemakhaya. Lesi sihumusho sesiGriki saziwa ngokuthi yiSebthwaginta („Septuaginta“ = amashumi ayisikhombisa) ngenxa yokuthi kuthiwa saqalwa saphethwa yizikhuthali ezingamashumi ayisikhombisa ezinsukwini ezingamashumi ayisikhombisa. (Isinqamulelo ngesiLathini = LXX; thina-ke sisebenzisa isinqamulela „g“ okungukuthi ngelesiGriki).

Lesi sihumusho sesiGriki siqukethe nekhethelo lesibili (deuterokanon) lezincwadi zoThobi noJudithi noBhaluki ezingekho kwamanye amabhaybheli njengoba phela uMartin Luther azihlunga wazishiya ngaphandle ekuhumusheleni kwakhe esiJalimaneni ngo-1522.

Izihumusho zebhaybheli zanamuhla (bheka: Isihumusho samabandla-ngamabandla sokukhuthaza ubumbwano lwamaKhristu olwimini lwesiJalimane, „Einheitsübersetzung, Die Bibel, Altes und Neues Testament, 1980“) ziqukethe ngisho nezincwadi ezalotshwa sihambile isikhathi yaqala le ndaba (2nd century) – ekaAkhwila (Aquila), ekaSmakhusi (Symmachus) nekaThiyodothini (Theodotin).

  1. IsiLathini („ivulgatha“)

Endulo (150 AD) abantu baseNyakatho yeAfrika naseNingizimu yaseFransi base bekade bazisebenzisela ibhaybheli lolwimi lwesiLathini esidala, elaziwa namuhla ngokuthi yiVethusi Lathina (=“Vetus Latina“ = elesiLathini esidala). Akuselula nokho namuhla ukuthola noma nje-ke izicucu zalo.

Ngonyaka wamakhulu amathathu namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye emva kokuzalwa kukaJesu (390 AD) kwasuka isazi kwezenkolo uHironimasi (= Hieronymus) ethunywé yinhloko yeSonto lakubo, uPhapha uDamasusu wokuqala (= Pope Damasus I.), wahumusha izincwadi zeqembu namuhla esilibiza ngokuthi yithestamente elidala (TD), ezisusa olwimini lwesiHebheru, ezifaka kolwesiLathini, ngesizathu sokuthi onke amabhaybheli esiLathini alezo zikhathi ayehunyushwé esuswa kolwesiGriki lweSebthwaginta, evame ukuphambuka ezindimeni ezithile, awulahle umkhondo wendaba.  Leli-ke elahunyushwa nguHironimasi lethiwa igama lokuthi yiVulgatha (= „Vulgata“) okungukuthi ngelikawonke-wonke.

IVulgatha-ke  yemukeleka kahle kakhulu eBandleni lamaKhatholika langalezo zikhathi, yedluliselwa nakwabanye emagatsheni, kwase kuthi-ke ngembizo enkulu yeSonto eyayihlangene eThendele (= Trent) kwelaseNtaliyane ngonyaka ka-1546 kwavunyelwana ngokuthi iVulgatha yilona bhaybheli elihumusheké kahle ngokungenansolo (= „authentic“), okufanele lisetshenziswe enkonzweni nasempilweni yabakholwayo.

Zolo lokhu (mhla ka-15 kuEphrili ngo-1979) inhloko yeBandla lamaKhatholika ebiphethe ngaleyo minyaka, uPhapha uJohanisi uPhawuli wesibili (Pope Johannes Paul II.), yamemezela ukukhishwa kweVulgatha esibukeziwe, osekuyiyona eyethulwa emphakathini.

  1. eminye imizamo

Kule ntshisekelo yokuzama ukutholisisa kahle umnyombo nelaka lemibhalo yokuqala yenkolo yobuJuda neyobuKhristu kunemibhalo eminingi eseyavela, eminye yabuye yamyamalala noma yakhohlakala.

Eminye yayo yilena: uNcwadi-nhlanu wamaSamariya (= „der samaritanische Pentateuch“). Uncwadi-nhlanu phela umqulu oqukethe izincwadi zonhlanu oGenesisi, noEksodusi, noLevithikhusi noNumeri kanye noDutheronomi. (IsiGriki sithi pentateuch („phenta-thoykh“) sisho uNcwadi-nhlanu).  UNcwadi-nhlanu ngolwimi lwesiAramu (= aramäisch) esaziwa ngokuthi yiThagume (= Targume) kanye noNcwadi-nhlanu ngolwimi lwesiSiriya owaziswa ngokuthi yiPheshitha.

 Yonke le mizamo esiyibala lapha ngenhla yayenana olwimini lwendabuko yalezi zincwadi ezihunyushwayo, ulwimi lwesiHebheru.

Kuneminye-ke imizamo yona eyayihumusha ithathela kuSebthwaginta. Yilena-ke: yiVethusi Lathina, yiKhobthishi (coptic), eyaseTopiya, eyaseArmeniya neGothishi.

  1. Izingxenye zethestamente elidala (TD) ezidabuka olwimini lwesiAramu

Ulwimi lwesiAramu luhlobene kakhulu nolwesiHebheru, cishe njengoba isiSwati nesiZulu nesiXhosa zihlobene. Lolu lwimi lwaqala ukwanda ngenkathi yombuso wamaPheleshiya (kusukela eminyakeni engamakhulu amahlanu namashumi amane ngaphambi kokuzalwa kukaJesu, 540 BC), lwagcina selucishe lwalucima nya olwesiHebheru. Uzalwa-nje uJesu ekhula, sekwakhulunywa ikakhulukazi isiAramu kwelakubo.

Izingxenye zethestamente elidala ezidabuka olwimini lwesiAramu yilezi: nguJeremiya 10,11; nguEzra 4,8 kuya ku-6,18; 7,12-26; noDanyela 2,4 kuya ku-7,28.

Rev. Dr. Ben Khumalo-Seegelken

Convenor: „biblia zuluensis“

https://www.biblia-zuluensis.de/

ngoJanwari 1996

 

Imibono nemibuzo: 0 »

umbono noma umbuzo wakho

By using this form, you agree to the storage and processing of your data through this site. We do not store IP addresses in comments.
Please refer to the privacy policy

*=kudingeka nakanjani

okuvunyelwe: HTML: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>