UQhwagayiswano olusaqhubeka ngeThestamente eliDala

29.02.2016
izelamani oKhayini noAbela

Phakathi kokuLahlekelana ngeNkulumo kanye noMphelandaba

UQhwagayiswano olusaqhubeka ngeThestamente eliDala
kanye neMpicabadala kwezeMfundo ngezeNkolo
[uMlobi nguReinhard Mawick*; uhunyushelwé esiZulwini nguBheni wakwaKhumalo]

Oxoxayo:

NgoNdasa onyakeni odlule kwenzeké isimanga: Udaba eMfundweni ephakeme ngoLwazi ngezeNkolo luye lwafinyelela kwezisematheni emaphephandabeni nasemsakazweni: „UNkulunkulu wobuDlova noweziGemegeme zikaKhukhulelangoqo nezikaZamcolo“ – isihloko ephephandabeni iFrankfurter-Allgemeine-Zeitung [eJalimane] lomhla zingamashumi amabili nanye kuNdasa kophelile [21.04.2015], kwaqhutshekwa kwathiwa: „USolwazi kwezeNkolo ugqugquzela ukucinywa kweThestamente eliDala“.

Kahle bo! USolwazi kwezeNkolo ugqugquzela ukucinywa kweThestamente eliDala? Kungaba yiqiniso lokho?

USolwazi kwezeNkolo uNotger Slenczka ofundisa uNyuvesi iHumboldt eBerlin wayekade elobé ingxoxo eyavela emaphepheni phansi kwesihloko esithi „iSonto [=iBandla labeNkolo yobuKhristu] neThestamente eliDala“. Lesi sihloko esingaxwayisi ngalutho-nje wasilandelisa ngesibikezelo esinochuku. Engxenyanyeni enesihloko esithi „isiNgeniso“ okaSlenza waloba wathi:

Obikayo:
`Provocare´, okungukuthi: `Memeza! Hlab‘ umkhosi! Khuz‘ umhlola!´ Osengene wazakhela wazinza ezimweni ezithile, uzifaké ngokwakhe ekutheni kufanele anqandwe uma lezo zimo kubonakala zisoleka. Nanso-ke inhloso yalo mbhalo. Ngihlanganisa imibono eyaziwayo, bese ngilimisa ngesihloko elithi nebala iThestamente eliDala, njengoba uHarnack ahlongoza, akufanele lidedelwe ukuba ngenye yemibhalo efundwayo nokufundiswa ngayo eSontweni [=eBandleni labeNkolo ngeNqubo yobuKhristu] .

Oxoxayo:
Uma kubizwa isibongo sakwaHarnack kweziphathelene neThestamente eliDala, kujwayele ukuthi kusuke kukhulunywa ngoSolwazi kwezeMfundo ephakame ngezeNkolo uAdolf von Harnack. Kunomusho omudekazi owaziwa nanamuhla lokhu – eminyakeni ecishe ibe yikhulu yashicilelwa okokuqala – yiwo wonke oqeqeshwe enyuvesi eMfundweni ngoLwazi LwezeNkolo. Uthi lo musho:

Obikayo:
“…ukulenqaba iThestamente eliDala ngonyaka-khulu wesibili enkathini esiphila kuyo [2nd century] kwaba yiphutha okwaba kuhle ukuthi iSonto laphikisana nalo; ukuqhubeka ukubambelela kulo ngonyaka-khulu weshumi nesithupha enkathini esiphila kuyo [16th century] kwakuwutwayi uMkhankaso wokuCandulwa kabusha kweBandla labeNkolo ngeNqubo yobuKhristu [Reformation] owawungekwazi ukuzithintitha lona; ukuqhubeka-ke ukuligcina njengemthombo wolwazi kwezenkolo ngokwenqubo yeSiko loCandulo kuwumphumela wobuvila nobuthaka kwabezenkolo nakwabezeSonto.” [nguAdolf von Harnack]

Oxoxayo:
UHarnack wawuloba lo musho ngonyaka wamashumi amabili nanye enkathini edlule [1921] embhalweni omkhulu ngoMarcion kwezoMlando weSonto [=weBandla labeNkolo ngeNqubo yobuKhristu]. UMarcion lowo wayeshumayela eSontweni lasemandulo kusuka ngonyaka-khulu wesibili enkathini esiphila kuyo [2nd century] egqugqumezela inkolo ngenqubo yobuKhristu eyayingezukuphathelana sampela-nje noPhezukonke okunguMdali okuxoxwa ngaye eThestamenteni eliDala; emqulwini wezincwadi zakhe ezingcwele uMarcion wayeziphathele-nje iVangeli ngokukaLukha kanye nezinye zezincwadi zikaPhawuli. ElikaMarcion kulokho: OPhezukonke okuxoxwa ngaye eThestamenteni eliDala, lona owadala lo mhlaba owonakele kabi kangaka, kungeze kwaba nguye futhi ongoPhezukonke woThando, uYise kaJesu Khristu.

UMarcion nabalandeli bakhe bakhishwa baxoshwa eBandleni kuthiwa bayiziphoxi ezidukisa amakholwa; iBandla lakhe laziqhubekela kwaze kwaba sonyakeni-khulu wesihlanu [5th century].

Lo musho esikhunjuzwa ngawo lapha uyakhombisa ukuthi uHarnack wayesibona sasilungile isinqumo seSonto lasemandulo sokuthi iThestamente eliDala ligcinwe emqulwini webhaybheli labakholwa ngenqubo yobuKhristu. Ukuthi leso sinqumo sasisalungile ngezikhathi zoCandulo, akumcaceli kahle okaHarnack. Ngowamashumi amabili nanye enkathini edlule [1921] isinqumo sakhe sicacile: ukuqhubeka-ke ukuligcina iThestamente eliDala njengemthombo wolwazi kwezenkolo ngokwenqubo yeSiko loCandulo kuwumphumela wobuvila nobuthaka kwabezenkolo nabakwezeSonto.

Kusuka phi lokho? UAdolf von Harnack kanye nabanye oSolwazi eMfundweni ngezeNkolo ngalezo zikhathi babekholelwa ekutheni inkolo ngokwenqubo yobuKhristu iyothuthuka ngokuhambisana nolwazi nenhlakanipho ngokuqhubeka kwesikhathi. Ucwaningo lwaselukhombisile ukuthi nemibhalo equkethwe ebhaybhelini yayikade ivele ngezikhathi zayo emlandweni, yayingesizo izingxoxo ezethula umlando ngezehlakalo zasemandulo njengokwakucatshangwa emphakathini kuze kube yileso sikhathi. Ngokunjalo-ke iThestamente eliDala, ibhaybheli likaIzrayeli, eliqukethe okuphathelene nezikhathi ezingaphambi kokuzalwa kukaJesu waseNazaletha, lingeze laba nesikhundla nezinga elilingana neleThestamente eliSha – kuHanarck nontanga yakhe kwakungangatshazwa kulokho. Nje-ke babethatha ngokuthi inkolo ngokwenqubo yobuKhristu ekuqhathanisweni nenkolo ngenqubo yobuJuda – nanayiphi nje-ke enye inkolo – yayisifinyelele ezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu ngokuthuthuka.

Ingqondo enjalo ayisavumelekile sampela muva-nje kwabeMfundo yoLwazi ngezeNkolo eJalimane ngesizathu esisemqoka sokuthi kusukela ngonyaka wenkulungwane namashumi amane nanhlanu [1945] bayakwazi ukwehluleka kwabo ngokuphathelene namaJuda kanye nomlando wabo onhlembenhlembe ngokuphathelene nezikhathi zombuso wobandlululo nobudlova weNationalsozialismus [wobuNatsi (Nazism)]. Ukubhobokelana nokwethekelisana kwabenkolo ngokwenqubo yobuKhristu kanye nabenkolo ngokwenqubo yobuJuda kukhuthalelwe kakhulu ezikhathini zamuva kuwo omabili amaBandla amakhulu kwelaseJalimane, kuzanywa ukupheza lo mkhuba omdala ongalungile kwabenkolo yobuKhristu wokuchukuluzana nokulwisana namaJuda. Sekuqhamuka-ke lo Solwazi waseJalimane uNotger Slenczka, wentanga yonyaka we-1960, nombono wokuthi iThestamente eliDala alingabinakho ukwemukeleka emiqulwini yezenkolo eSontweni?

Isifuthefuthe solaka sesiphenjwa nguMfundisi uFriedhelm Pieper. Mfundisi uPieper unguMongameli wesiGungu saseJalimane esiPhethe iziNhlangano zokuBhobokelana nokweThekelisana kwabenkolo ngokwenqubo yobuKhristu kanye nabenkolo ngokwenqubo yobuJuda [Deutscher Koordinierungsrat der Gesellschaften für christlich-jüdische Zusammenarbeit]. Usakaza umbhalo osihloko sawo sithi „USolwazi kwezeMfundo ngoLwazi ngezeNkolo ufuna ukukhipha iThestamente eliDala liphele eBhaybhelini“ lapho ethi khona:

Obikayo:
Kuyamangalisa ukuthi kuthule cwaka emphakathini kodwa kube kunesikhubekiso esinzima esithuthumelisa abeNkolo ngokoCandulo kwelaseJalimane namuhla. (…)  USlenczka uhehela ukuthi kungenwe nabeNkolo ngokoCandulo bezolo nanamuhla [19th & 20th centuries] emncingweni oyogcina uphelele ezeni okuyiyona ndlela [ngokubona kwakhe] okufanele sibukwe ngayo isimo seSonto namuhla kanye nokujivazwa kweThestamente eliDala okuhambisana nayo.

Oxoxayo:
Duze emva kwalokho kwasukuma phansi oSolwazi kwezeMfundo ngoLwazi ngezeNkolo abahlanu baseBerlin, baphikisana nozakwabo uSleczka. Bakhipha basakaza umbhalo ziyishumi nanhlanu kuNdasa [15.04.2015] abathi kuwo:

Obikayo:
“NjengamaLungu oPhiko lweMfundo ephakeme ngoLwazi ngezeNkolo eNyuvesi iHumboldt eBerlin siyazikhipha siyazihlangula kokushiwo nguzakwethu uMnumzana uSlenczka eziqeshaneni eziningi azibhalile wazisakaza mayelana neThestamente eliDala (…) Akushoyo ngokubaluleka kweThestamente eliDala kwabeNkolo ngeNqubo yobuKhristu, nangesimo sobuhlobo nokufuzana phakathi kweThestamente eliDala neliSha, kanye nezikhundla seThestamente eliSha emqulwini wemibhalo yezenkolo, [konke lokho akushoyo] sikubona kungesilo iqiniso, sithi akwemukeleki ngokweMfundiso ngoLwazi ngezeNkolo.”

Oxoxayo:
Kuseyize konke lokho! Omunye walabo abahlanu, uSolwazi kezoMlando wezeSonto, uChristoph Marschies, ihlala-mlonyeni kubaCubunguli kwezoLwazi nakwezeMfundo, onguMphathisihlalo wesiGungu soLwazi ngezeNkolo eSontweni ngeNqubo yoCandulo kwelaseJalimane [Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD)], usesuka ngoNdasa eyoloba eshashalazini iFacebook ethi:

Obikayo:
Izitshudeni kufanele zikhethe ukunaka izindaba ezifanele ukunakwa; iningi lezitshudeni eBerlin libona kanjalo, siyethemba! Imibono eyayibekwa ngoSolwazi kwezeNkolo ababengamaNatsi [abenhlangano yeNationalsozialismus (Nazism)] ngeke mina, engakhula ngaqiniselwa ekukholweni ebandleni laseBerlin-Dahlem, ngiyenze yemukeleke emphakathini ngokuthi ngiyiphe isithunzi sokuthi idingidwe eshashalazini elibanzi.

Oxoxayo:
Leli elihlabayo „eloSolwazi ababengamaNatsi“ laliqondiselwe ukumgcona, limnyundele, limthunazisise impela okaSlenczka; lenqakwa yizintatheli zamaphephandaba nezasemsakazweni ziphangelana, laba yindaba egudwini.

Kungani ukuthi – ngombono walaboSolwazi – umbono kaSlenczka kuthiwe akusikho-nje kuphela ukuthi uyaphaphalaza, kodwa kuthiwe futhi „awemukeleki ngokweMfundiso ngoLwazi ngezeNkolo“? Siphambeko siphi esikulo mbono kaSlenczka? Kuyiqiniso ukuthi ufuna lesulwe iThestamente eliDala ebhaybhelini njengophikankani wasemandulo, uMarcion, kanye noSolwazi bamuva [20th century] ababesondelene namaNatsi?

Kulo mbhalo kaSlenczka othemelezayo, odingida okuningi okwehlukene emakhasini angamashumi amane, mabili-nje amaphuzu okungakhulunywa ngawo, abalulekile ekutheni abeke umbuzo ngesikhundla seThestamente eliDala emqulwini wezenkolo ngenqubo yobuKhristu.

Okokuqala: Ngenxa yokuthi iSonto ngenqubo yobuKhristu kule minyakanyaka eyedlule yokubhobokelana nokwethekelisana kwabenkolo ngenqubo yobuKhristu nabenkolo ngenqubo yobuJuda lafunda lazibonela ukuthi inkolo ngenqubo yobuJuda izimele ngokulingana nezinye, ayisiso-nje „isinyathelo esandulela“ inkolo ngequbo yobuKhristu, ngombono kaSlenczka kuwukukhombisa inhlonipho ngokufanele kwabenkolo yobuJuda uma izincwadi zeThestamente eliDala zingaphathwa ngokufanayo nezincwadi zeThestamente eliSha njengeziNcwadi eziNgcwele zeSonto.

Ifindo lesivumelwano phakathi koPhezukonke noIzrayeli ingani phela lilokhu labakhona, lisekhona; ngakho-ke kulungé kahle kakhulu ukuthi isiZwe sakwaIzrayeli, nòma-ke abenkolo yobuJuda namuhla, kube yibo phambili kwabaphathelene nezincwadi zeThestamente eliDala. Ngokunjalo-ke ukungabi nanhlonipho, yindelelo ephindiwe, uma amaKhristu esenkonkoshela izincwadi zeThestamente eliDala njengeziNcwadi zawo eziNgcwele.

Enkulumweni abeyethula, okaSleznczka ukuchaza kanje lokhu „ukwedelela“ kwamaKhristu:

Obikayo:
Le ngqondo izithathela igunya ngokuzisondeza kuKhristu – okungukuthi: Ngaphandle kokugcina imithetho nezibopho zokuziphatha ngokuba msulwa, ngaphandle kokusokwa, ngaphandle kokuphendula nakho konke okunye, kuzingenelwe-nje efindweni lesivumelwano eliphakathi koPhezukonke noIzrayeli, bese kuthiwa-nje: Sorry, Bakwethu, ngenxa kaJesu Khristu uhhafu waleli xhiba [=sitting-room] ngowethu; sesizihlelela wona kabusha ngokubona kwethu – uKhristu, uMkhosi wokuVuka kukaKhristu [=Easter], inqubo yenkonzo nakho konke okunye. Le ngqondo (…) ayinanhlonipho kwabenkolo yobuJuda; ngokunjalo ayemukeleki.

Oxoxayo:
Nalowo nalowo angazicabangela ngokubona kwakhe kulokho, kuyacaca nokho ukuthi: KuSlenczka kusemqoka ukuthi inkolo ngenqubo yobuJuda ihlonipheke. Ufuna ukuyibuyisela izincwadi zayo ezingcwele osekwaziwa ngokuvumelana muva-nje ukuthi azixoxi ngoJesu Khristu. Lo mbono uwunikwa ngokufundwé ekubhobokelaneni nasekwethekelelaneni kwabenkolo ngenqubo yobuKhristu nabenkolo ngenqubo yobuJuda kusukela onyakeni wenkulungwane namakhulu ayisishiyagalolunye namashumi amane nanhlanu [1945].

Elesibili iphuzu uSlenczka alibekayo embhalweni wakhe omude uphathelene nendlela izindima nezahluko zaseThestamenteni eliDala ezisetshenziswa ngazo ngabenkolo yobuKhristu – enkonzweni noma empilweni yobukholwa babo.

Ubhala athi kulokho:

Obikayo:
Uma uzifundisisa, uzazi, izincwadi zeThestamente eliDala zonkana, uzibona kalufifi-nje ukuthi zingaba umlando wokuxhumana kwabakholwayo noPhezukonke okungase kuhambisane nomoya wobukholwa ngokwenqubo yobuKhristu, kufakaziselwe futhi ngokunjalo. Eqinisweni lonke, izindima nezahluko zaseThestamenteni eliDala sizithintathinta-nje ngokuzishalazela empilweni yethu yobukholwa ngenqubo yobuKhristu ekuqhathaniseni nezaseThestamenteni eliSha (…) Ngokusobala kubonakala lokho ekhethelweni lezindima zaseThestamenteni eliDala okushunyayelwa ngazo ezinkonzweni kanye nasemavesini amaHubo aphelekezela iSihlabelelo seBandla lamaKhristu ngokoCandulo eJalimane [Evangelisches Gesangbuch].

Oxoxayo:
Uma uzwa lokho, ufikelwa ukungabaza: Ukushalaza kwamaKhristu, eshalazela izindima nezahluko ezithile zemibhalo engcwele, kuqondene neThestamente eliDala-nje kuphela? Nezindima nezahluko zeThestamente eliSha, ezinye zazo zamuva esehlanganisé iminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezimbili [2 000] yobudala, zisadinga abafundele ukuzichaza ukuze zizwakale, ziqondeke ngokuyikho. Thina benzalo yanamuhla [akunjalo-nje ukuthi] sinhlembenhlembe, sishalazela okungini-nje – imizekeliso ethile eseThestamenteni eliSha noma ingxoxo ngokuvuka kukaJesu kwabafileyo?

Siyaqhubeka

 *uReinhard Mavik engxoxweni yakhe esihloko esithi “Zwischen Missverständnis und Abgrund, Der neue Streit um das Alte Testament und die Widrigkeiten der modernen Theologie” eyethulwé ohlelweni „ezeNkolo“ eMsakazweni iNorddeutscher Rundfunk [NDR-Kultur] eJalimane, ngeSonto zingamashumi amabili nesishiyagalombili kuNhlolanja kowezinkulungwane ezimbili neshumi nesithupha [28.02.2016] ekuseni. UReinhard Mawick, owazalwa ngowe-1966, unguSolwazi kwezeNkolo neNtatheli. Kusukela ngowe-2014 unguMhleli kanyangazonke i-„zeitzeichen – Evangelische Kommentare zur Religion und Gesellschaft“ [„uSimosezulu – iziNgxoxo zamaKholwa ngokoCandulo ngezeNkolo nezoMphakathi“] eBerlin.

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