IZaba zokuXolelana nokuBuyisana emaSangweni aseSodoma

20.03.2016
UbuNzima bokuZama ukuNqoba uBubi ngokweNza okuHle

UbuNzima bokuZama ukuNqoba uBubi ngokweNza okuHle

– nguKlaus Eulenberger* –

Umlobi:

UAbhraham, lo mnumzana okuxoxwa ngaye ebhaybhelini, uvela emajukujukwini omlando wasemandulo ongaqondakalisisi. Usaziwa ngelithi Abhram [„uBaba ohloniphekile“] ngenkathi izwi elithile lithi kuye: Phuma ulishiye elakini, uye ezweni engiyokukhombisa lona. Lithi-ke: „Ngiyokubusisa; uyoba yisibusiso.“ NgoPhezukonke kuphela okhuluma kanjalo. Ngokuqhubeka kokuxoxwa ngoAbham-Abhraham siya ngokusombuluka lesi sisho esiphatha isibusiso. Isigigaba sokuqala sixoxa ngengxabano phakathi kukaAbhram nendodana yomnewabo, uLothi. Bakade bewukelé esifundeni esingasentshonalanga nomfula iJoldani, lowo nalowo nemfuyo yakhe. Yancipha indawo, yabanciphela bonke. Ingxoxo ebhaybhelini encwadini uGenesisi ithi:

Oxoxayo:
„Kwakungasemnandi emphakathini ukuqhubeka kwabo bakhelene, ngoba imfuyo yabo yayisiningi … kwakuhlala kuxatshanwa phakathi kwabelusi bemfuyo kaAbhram nabemfuyo kaLothi.“

Umlobi:
UAbhram, owelamana noyise kaLothi, wamnika isu lo mfana, ukuze kuboniswane:

Oxoxayo:
„Akungaveli ingxabano phakathi kwami nawe … Ubanzi umhlaba, uvulekile! Yehlukana nami! Uma uqonda kwesokunxele, ngiyophambukela kwesokudla; uma uya kwesokudla, ngiye kwesokunxele.“

Umlobi:
ULothi wasihlola isifunda, wathatha isinqumo sokuthi imfuyo yakhe kanye naye nabomuzi wakhe bazohlala ngasemfuleni iJoldani, ngenxa yokuba khona kwamanzi enele. Waqonda empumalanga-ke. UAbhram wavumelana nalokho ngesihle. Isizathu sezingxabano ezingapheli sesiqediwe ngalokho. Phinde! Kusekhona okusathikamezayo; kunokuxozoma okukhona endabeni. Enzulwini yayo kumanyukunyuku. Engxoxweni iphathwa ngokushalazelwa-nje leyo, kuthiwe:

Oxoxayo:
„Kwakwakhé abaseKhenani namaPherisitha kulelo zwe ngalezo zikhathi.“

Umlobi:
Kukhulunywa ngezizwe ezazakhé ePhalestina ngaphambi kwesakwaIzrayeli. Kudala zazikhona lapho oAbhram noLothi beya khona. Azizukubukelela-nje abokufika bephana ngezwe lazo, behlukaniselana. Kubonakala lapha okuphathelene nesimo kwaIzrayeli nasePhalestina namuhla. – Isu lokuxolelana nokubuyisana phakathi kukaAbhram noLothi linesinye isici futhi. Sisemishweni emibili yokuqala yale ngxoxo, sibekwé ngendlela enganakekile-nje:

Oxoxayo:
„Wathutha namathende akhe uLothi waqhubekela eSodoma. AbaseSodoma babonakele, beyizoni, bephila ngokuphambene nentando yoPhezukonke.“ [uGenesisi 13, 6-13]

Umlobi:
Lahlangana nezimbila zithutha iqili, uLothi! Isazoxoxwa eyaseSodoma nabakhona. Kusaxwayiswa-nje ngokungetheni ngokonakala kwabo. Uma uLothi nemihlambi yakhe esondela kulo muzi, akha, ezinza khona, kungenzeka agcine esedonselwe wangena kulobo bonakali. Nje-ke; kwagcina kanjalo. Kuqala-nje kunganakekile esangweni lomuzi.

Oxoxayo:
„Kwafika abesilisa bebabili ngokuhwalala eSodoma … wathi uma ebabona uLothi engasesangweni, wasukuma, wahlangabezana nabo, wakhuleka ngokukhothama aze athinte phansi, wathi: Banumzana abathandekayo, phambukelani kwami, niyofihla khona ikhanda okwanamuhla.“

Umlobi:
Baphelekezelana, bangena, baphathwa kahle. Ngaphambi-nje kokuthi balale, kwabuthana isixuku samadoda namabhungu nezinsizwa ebaleni, zithi kuLothi – naye owayekade engowokufika kule ndawo – akawakhiphele lezi zivakashi. „Sifuna ukuzibhebha“, kumemeza amadoda omuzi. Isivakashi asilokothwa, umthetho usho njalo. ULothi usethatha isinqumo esinzima. Ucela la madoda ukuthi okungenani akawanike amadodakazi akhe omabili, izintombi nto, azenzele kuwo ngokuthanda kwawo. Ngaphambi kokuthi kuze kwenzeke lokho, izivakashi lezi – izithunywa zoPhezukonke – zasidida savaleka amehlo isixuku ebaleni, yaphelela emoyeni leyo ndaba. Kwaphinda kwavela obala ngalokho ukuthi bonakele kanjani abaseSodoma.

Kuze kube namhla lokhu igama lomuzi waseSodoma liziselwa inhlanganisela yobubi nobuqili nobudlova. Besisajatshuliswé yizaba zokuxolelana nokubuyisana – indaba ethokozisayo emasangweni aseSodoma, exoxa ngokunqandeka kolaka ngokudaleka kwesu lokubonelelana. Khona lapho-nje, kulelo shashalazi, sekubheduka ingxaki-nje: insambatheka yobudlova babadlwenguli. Engxoxweni kuGenesisi lo muzi „owonakele“, umuzi wezono iSodoma uziholela ulaka loPhezukonke. Yingakho eseqhamuka futhi umnewabo kayise kaLothi.

Muva-nje uAbhram usenegama elisha. UsenguAbhraham manje, okungukuthi nguYise weningi. Uyakuba nozalo olukhulu, abe nguyise wezizwe eziningi, kusho oPhezukonke emethembisa.

UAbhraham, okhethiweyo wabusiswa, oPhezukonke umazisa ukuthi ufuna ukuhlola ukuthi kuyiqiniso na ukuthi abaseSodoma „izono zabo zinzima ngokwedlulele“. Uma kunjalo-ke, … oPhezukonke akawuqedeli umusho wakhe, kodwa ulaka olungase lubehlele luyazizwakalela: seliyobhubha iSodoma – umuzi wonke nakho konke okuphila kuwo kuyoshabalala ebusweni bomhlaba.

Ngaphambi kokuba kwenzeke lokho, uAbhraham, indoda ebusisekileyo, wasukuma, wabhekana noMbhubhisi. Uyazama uAbhraham ukumkhipha uSomandla kule ngqondo yakhe. Engxoxweni kuba sengathi kukhuluma amadoda amabili ebhekene ubuso nobuso, eqwagayisana.

Oxoxayo:
„UAbhraham wema phambi kweNkosi, wasondela kuyo wathi: Ufuna ukubhubhisa olungileyo kanye nabonakele? Kungenzeka ukuthi kunabangamashumi amahlanu abalungileyo kulo muzi; ufuna ukubabhubhisa, ungawuthetheleli lo muzi ngenxa yabangamashumi amahlanu abalungileyo okungenzeka ukuthi bakhona? UMahluleli woMhlaba angehlulele kulokho ngokulunga?

Umlobi:
Sengathi kuyaqala kuyagcina ebhaybhelini ukuthi umuntu abhekane noPhezukonke ngokuzazi ngokungaka. Ekukhombiseni kwakhe isibindi nobuhlakani, uAbharaham uziphatha njengoncengayo, ezazela ngebanga elikhulukazi iNkosi eqhelé ngalo kuye. Uyabufakazisa ubude balelo banga ngokuthi athi yena uwuthuli nomlotha-nje; kodwa lokho kuwubuhlakani obufana nokukhumbuza kwakhe uMehluleli woMhlaba ngokuthi kubhekeké ukuthi ahlulele ngokulunga. Ingani phela nguye owambusisa – ebusisa yena uAbhraham, isicabucabu!

Vumiyane oPhezukonke: Uma kutholakala ukuthi kunabangamashumi amahlanu eSodoma abalungileyo, awukubhujiswa umuzi.

UAbhraham uzama ukumhlakaniphela: Kungenzeka ukuthi kwesweleka abahlanu-nje kuhlangane amashumi amahlanu. Ekugcineni uAbhraham, ngesibindi nangokuzithoba, wasibeka kwabalishumi abalungileyo isibalo okwavunyelwana ngaso. OPhezukonke wethembisa wathi:

Oxoxayo:
„Angiyukuwubhubhisa lo muzi uma kutholakala kuwo abayishumi abalungile. Wasuka wahamba oPhezukonke eseqedile ukukhuluma noAbhraham, noAbhraham waphenduka, waphindela kwakhe.“

Umlobi:
Nalapha kusuka obusisekileyo aveze isu eliba yisibusiso. Ububi obebungase benzeke buguquka bube ubuhle uma kungatholakala inani elincane-nje labalungileyo emzini. UAbhraham umvula amehlo oPhezukonke, umkhombisa isu elingaba ngcono: Uma nòma kungaba nedlanzana-nje labalungileyo abatholakalayo, iSodoma ingeze yagcina iwumuzi wezonakali. Engxoxweni kuzwakala sengathi akukwazengana ukuthola ngisho lelo dlanzana-nje. Ngabe labhujiselwani-ke iSodoma?

ISodoma esibizwa ibhanqwe neGomora isha ingqongqe emvuleni yesibabule namalangabi oPhezukonke awehlisela kuyo.

Engxoxweni esebhaybhelini ukukhanya kwesivumelwano somusa phakathi kukaAbhraham nendodana yomfowabo, uLothi, kulandelwa yinhlekelele yeziqalekiso nenzalo yazo. Ubuqhawe bomnumzana ohloniphekile, ubuhlakani bakhe kanye nokusukumela kwakhe phezulu kuphelela ezeni kulokhu. UAbhraham akanamandla okubhekana nalokhu akubukela buqama:

Oxoxayo:
„Waphenduka, wabheka eSodoma naseGomora nakulo lonke elaleso sifunda, wabona laphaya intuthu ishunqa njengentuthu eziko elikhulukazi“ [uGenesisi 19,28]

Umlobi:
UErnst Axel Knauf, uSolwazi eziFundweni zeThestamente eliSha nakweZezwe lezaseBhaybhelini eNyuvesi yaseBern uyicwaninga ayithole imizila yokubhujiswa nokungqongiswa komhlaba ezifundeni ezigudle uLwandle oluFile nanamuhla lokhu:

Oxoxayo:
„USolwazi kweZezwe ongumArabhu uzichaza lezi zifundazwe ngamazwi ashaya emhlolweni, athi „YisiHogo eMhlabeni“: Lapha kusuka izibilini zomhlaba, njengetshe-nsimbi nesibabule, zichithekele obala; kuqubuka inzulu yolwandle lwesigayegaye ixhaphazele phezu kwamagagasi. Konke lokhu kwehlukene kakhulu nobuluhlaza baminyaka yonke emithonjeni esezifundeni ezigudlé uLwandle oluFile (eJerikho, eEn Gedi, …)

Umlobi:
Isiqubulo esithi „yisiHogo emhlabeni“ sithena amandla. Akukho mzamo wokuguqula ububi bube ubuhle ongakwazi ukusiguqula sibikezele amahlungu aluhlaza. Uthi lezi zingxoxo azisungulwanga zalotshelwa lokho ukuze kubonakale ukuthi kunempicabadala yesigayegaye sokonakala okungephumelela muntu nòma elungé kangakanani ukumelana nayo ayinqobe?

Lezi zingxoxo zombili zokuvumelana okumangalisayo nokulamula kobusisiweyo okwaba yimpumelelo, zelanywa ngeyesithathu. Kulena-ke uAbhraham usesifaka engozini isibusiso ayesemukelisiwe. Lokhu engakabi nguyise wezizwe eziningi; akakabi futhi nguyise wabantwana abaningi. Umkakhe uSara wamtholela indodana yayinye-nje, uYisaka, oyigugu labo. UYisaka uyindlalifa yesibusiso ukufezeka kwaso okuyoqala kuye nokwethenjelwe kuye ngaso. [uGenesisi 22,17-] Isahluko samashumi amabili nambili sikaGenesisi sivula ngendima ehlasimulisa umzimba, ekuhlanekezela konke osekwake kwaba khona:

Oxoxayo:
„Emva kwalezi zigameko oPhezukonke wamlinga uAbhraham, wathi kuye: Abhraham! Waphendula wathi: Ngilapha. Wayesethi: Thatha uYisaka, indodana yakho eyodwana, eyigugu lenu, niye ezweni iMoriya ungihlabele yena ungenzele umnikelo wokushiswa ngaye entabeni engiyokukhombisa yona.“

Umlobi:
Useyamephuca oPhezukonke uAbhraham lesi sibusiso abememukelisé sona? Ufunelani manje ukuthi uAbhraham amhlabele indona yakhe eyodwana amenzele ngayo umhlabelo wokushiswa? Ugila mkhuba muni oPhezukonke ngoAbhraham?

Le ngxoxo ngifuna ukuyifuna ngokungahambisani nendlela okujwayeleké ukuthi ichazwe ngayo eseyanda kakhulu: Akuvivinywa ubuqotho nokwethembeka kukaAbhraham lapha; kuvivinywa ukungazamaziseki kwakhe ebhekene nomyalelo ongasile. Kufuneka ukuthi kubonakale ukuthi uAbhraham – njengoba ake enza esemasangweni eSodoma – uyamelana na noPhezukonke noma uthobela akuqhwagwa ngokhulekelwayo.

Zimbili izizathu zokuyichaza kanje le ngxoxo: Esokuqala ngamazwi athi „oPhezukonke wamlinga uAbhraham“ okungukuthi oPhezukonke „wamvivinya uAbhraham.“

Endleleni uAbhraham aphendula ngayo kulesi silingo, kulesi sivivinyo, kuzocaca ukuthi usifanele na lesi sibusiso asemukeliswa noma cha. Ekuvumelaneni nomyalelo ongasile uyasigcona simlahlekele isibusiso asemukeliswa noma uyasigcina ngokuthi aphikisane nohlonishwayo naye amkhulekelayo.

Esesibili isizathu: Livela kane engxoxweni ibizo elingavamile loPhezukonke elithi „Elohim“.

UElohim kungaba yibizo lezithixo ngobuningi bazo noma lesithixo sisinye. Ngasemaphethelweni engxoxo kusetshenziswa esikhundleni saleli bizo elingacacisisile kahle igama eliqondile, elingedidaniswe naliphi elinye ibizo loPhezukonke: JHWH noma Adonayi.

Yisithunywa sakhe lesi esimemeza sikhuza lo Abhraham osezimisele ukubulala indodana yakhe, sithi: „Abhraham! Abhraham! Ungamthinti umfana lowo; myeke!“

Kukula mavesi lapho lizwakala khona izwi lalona oPhezukonke „ukulinga/ukuvivinya“ angaphathelene nakho, okunguyena okuqedayo. uJHWH, ngokwenqubo yenkolo yobuJuda obizo lakhe liphunyiselwa kuthiwe nguAdonayi, ngokuhumusha kukaMartin Luther okuthi yiNkosi, nguye ovimbela umuntu ukuthi njengomzali anikele umntanakhe nakunoma yisiphi isithixo. uJHWH-Adonayi, iNkosi, unqanda uAbhraham – ngokuthi angene alamule ngomzuzu wokugcina – ukuthi agcone alahlekelwe yisibusiso sakhe unomphelo. Kule ndlela esiyichaza ngayo le ngxoxo indikimba yisibusiso esisengozini yokulahleka, siyiphunyuke okokuphela.

Umlobi nomdlali ohlekisanayo waseMelika, uWoody Allen, le ndaba ehlasimulisa umzimba uyixoxa njengehlaya; nòma kunjalo ngibona sengathi ushaya emhlolweni ngencazelo yakhe:

Oxoxayo:
… UAbhraham wavuka phakathi kwamabili, wathi endodaneni yakhe, uYisaka: „Bengiphupha, ngezwa izwi leNkosi lithi kufanele indodana yami yodwana ngiyenze umhlabelo wokushiswa. Shesha, gqoka!“

UYisaka waphendula, evevezela, wathi: „Wathini-ke wena uma esho njalo? …Nguye othé kufanele ngenziwe umhlatshelo wokushiswa?“

Waphendula uAbhraham wathi: „Ikholwa alibuzi. Asihambe wena bo; silindelwe usuku olunzima!“

USara ezwa ngenhloso kaAbhraham wathukuthela, wabuza wathi: „Uqinisekile ukuthi bekuyiNkosi leyo ebikhululuma, kungesiye-nje mhlawumbe lo mngani wakho othanda ukwenza amahlaya angasile?“ […]

UAbhraham waphendula wathi: „Ngiyazi. BekuyiNkosi. Bekuyizwi elikhulu, elindondayo ngokungathi liyahlabelela. Akekho kulo lonke ugwadule lolu onembodlongo yezwi elinjalo.“

USara wathi: „Wena uyavumelana nalokho? Uzimisele ukwenza isenzo esikhohlakele kanje?”

UAbhraham wathi: “Eqinisweni lonke, yebo! Ukungabaza iNkosi isikhulumile, kungaba yisiphambeko esikhulu kabi; yisono esinzima!”

Wamthatha-ke uAbhraham uYisaka, wamusa endaweni ethile lapho ayizimisele ukumenza khona umhlabelo wokushiswa. Khona lapho-nje yaphuthuma iNkosi yambamba isandla uAbhraham, yathi: „Ungakwenza kanjani-nje lokho?!“

UAbhraham wathi: „Ingani nguwe lo othé …”

“Yekela mina wena ngokuthi ngitheni! Ulalela wenze yonke imbude othuka uyizwa?”

Wathelwa ngamahloni uAbhraham: “Eh, cha, … akunjalo!”

“Kanti wena awudlaliswa yini? Ngiyazincokolela-nje, ngiyakudlalisa, ngithi yenza uYisaka umhlatshelo wokushiswa; usugijima wena usuwenza njalo ngempela?!”

Washaya phansi ngedolo uAbhraham: “Uyazi nawe, angiqondi kahle uma wenza ihlaya noma ukhuluma uqondé okuthile!”

Wathetha oPhezukonke: “Ukuncokolisana nokudlalisana awukwazi? Angikaze ngikuzwe okunje!”

“Akusikho kodwa ubufakazi bokuthi ngikuthanda kangakanani ukuthi bengizimisele nanokwenza indodana yami yodwana-nje umnikelo wokushiswa ngenzela ukuthokozisa wena?”

“Lokho kuwubufakazi-nje bokuthi kukhona abantu abalandela noma yimuphi umbhedo uma ushiwo yizwi elizwakala kamnandi kubo!”

INkosi yanxusa uAbhraham ukuthi acambalale, azame ukulala; amshayele ngakusasa ucingo.

Umlobi:
Umbuzo kaWoody Allens othi “Ukuncokolisana nokudlalisana awukwazi wena?” uzwakala sengathi uyaseya isimo sokuvivinywa esihlasimulisa umzimba. Lo Abhraham engxoxweni yokuvivinywa ingxaki ngaye akusikho ukuthi akasiye umuntu wamahlaya, ingxaki ngaye ukuthi ungumuntu ogijimela kakhulu ukukhonza nokujabulisa ababona bephezu kwakhe ngesikhundla. Kuyamehlukanisa lokho kulo Abhraham obhekana noPhezukonke emasangweni aseSodoma. Lo mnumzane uvela kulezi zingxoxo ngokudidayo, akaqondakalisisi njalo.

Nòma le nhlekelele umntakankulunkulu, uJesu, agcina esekuyo, ingathathwa njengengxoxo enehaba yesigameko esehlela uYisaka, kuyiqiniso ukuthi: Wagcina ephunyukile, wasinda owayesongelelwe ukubulawa. Owayefelé esiphambanweni kwathi kusa ngolwesithathu wayesekhona futhi, bambona, bamphulula; uyezwa, uyakhuluma. Imivimbi namanxeba ababemlimazé wona, wayesawathwele.

Esithombeni esadwetshwa nguGiovanni Bellini waseNtaliyane, uKhristu ubonakala edumele, elimele, enamehlo ajabhile njengosangene, umlomo wakhe uvuleké okonozinyezayo. Uyaphila nokho; uphila okowedlulé olakeni lokufa okunobudlova obesabekayo. Ngesandla sakhe sokudla unika uphawu lwesibusiso.

NguNavid Kermani, umlobi wezincwadi noSolwazi kwezeNkolo owakhé eKoloni [eJalimane] ongowenkolo yobuSulumane obona kulo mdwebo wasemandulo [1400-1500] kokubili – ukufa nokuvuka. Encwadini yakhe ubhala athi uKermani ngombiko lesi sithombe asibona simnika wona:

Oxoxayo:
„Akakhohlwa lutho empilweni ovuké ekufeni; akahlanekezeli anandise lutho ekufeni. Ngokunjalo ukuzwisisa kahle ukusinda, azwisise ukuthi ukunqobile ukufa. Ngokunjalo likhulu ithemba lethu: Kunganqobeka ukufa!“ [kubhala uNavid Kermani, Ungläubiges Staunen. Über das Christentum, München (C.H. Beck) 2015, 62].

Umlobi:
Okuhle nokumhlophe esivumelwaneni esibabazekayo uAbhram asenza noLothi, indodana yomfowabo, kufiphazwa ngamathunzi nokuhwalala ezingxoxweni ezilandela leyo – amathunzi nokuhwalala okwejwayelekile empilweni. Amandla esibusiso abonakala ngokucacile njengoba nezingozi isibusiso esihlala sibhekene nazo zibonakele. Uma uKhristu oBusisayo emdwebeni kaBellini – kuzo zonke izingqinamba asedlulé kuzo – ephakamisa isandla sakhe sokudla, ebusisa, njengoba omdwebayo emenzisa, uyakhombisa ukuthi: Amandla esibusiso akwazi ukweqa ngisho negebe lobubi eliza nenzondo nobudlova nenxushunxushu.

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*uKlaus Eulenberger waseHamburg/eJalimane unguMfundisi waseLuthela osewathatha umhlalaphansi.  Le nkulumo uyilobé yakhishwa eMsakazweni iNDR-Kultur ohlelweni i-“Glaubenssachen” [“EzeNkolo”] ngeSonto zingama-20.03.2016. Ihunyushelwe esiZulwini nguBheni wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini weViyo leziKhuthali oBanjiswaneni lokuHumusha nokuBhala kabusha iBhaybheli ngesiZulu, Biblia Zuluensis.

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