“Umuntu phaqa!” – uMartin Luther emehlweni kaHeinrich Heine

05.10.2016
“Umuntu phaqa!” – uMartin Luther emehlweni kaHeinrich Heine

Kwathi umlobi wezinkondlo uHeinrich Heine enxuswa eParis ngowe-1834 ukuthi achazele abaseFransi ngomlando wezolwazi nezenhlakanipho kwelaseJalimane, waqala ngoMartin Luther [1483-1546]: Ngenxa yokubambelelisisa kwakhe eMbhalweni oNgcwele nguyena owabangumsunguli wenkululeko yokuzicabangela okwathi nangamaculo akhe enkolo waba ngumsunguli wobuchwepheshe kwezokuloba eJalimane – „umuntu phaqa“, kuye ingqondo nendalo kwakumnyombo-munye. UHeine [1797-1856], owayeyiJuda ngokuzalwa, owayesazinikela enkolweni yobuKhristu ngoba ethembé amathuba angconywana okuziphilisa, wayemazisa uLuther. Uyayiziba eyokuzithandekisa kukaLuther kwabaphethe; neyezincwadi zakhe ezihlambalazayo nezinyundela abalimi nabasebenzi namaJuda akasayithinti. Wayengayazi? Wayeyiziba ngenhloso yokumtusa?

UHans-Jürgen Benedict* uyasixoxela:

Imbongi: „Udumo kuLuther! Udumo lwaphakade kumnumzane ophakeme, ukuphepha nomnotho wethu esikubonga kuye nezipho zakhe esiphila ngazo nanamuhla lokhu“

Oxoxayo: Akusiye umLuthela owaloba lokho, ngumlobi wezinkondlo, umlobi wenkondlo iLoreley, uHeinrich Heine. Yini eyenza umlobi waseJalimane ongowobuJuda ngendabuko, owaziselwa kakhulu ngokuthanda kwakhe njalo ukuphoxa nokwenza iSonto nezeNkolo kube yinhlekisa emphakathini, [yini eyenza] ancome uMcanduli uLuther ngokwedlulele kangaka?

UHeine, owayezalwa emndenini wamaJuda owawaziselwa ingqondo enentuthuko, wakade esethathé isinqumo onyakeni we-1825 sokuzitholela „ithikithi lokungena empucukweni yaseYurophu“. Wangena wafunda kuMfundisi uGrimm eHeiligenstadt, wabhajadiswa zingamashumi amabili nesishiyagalombili kuJuni walowo nyaka [25.06.1825]. UHeine wembatha „inyumfoma yobuphrothestanti“ ezilungiselela isikhundla emphakathini kwelakubo ePhrushya. Yimpoqo nokuthunazeka lokho. Nesikhundla leso akazange asithole. Sekuthi phakathi nonyaka we-1830 ezwa ngomzabalazo kwezombangazwe kwelaseFransi [June Revolution], wathatha isinqumo sokulishiya elakubo ayozihlalela eParis. Ufuna ukungena abambe iqhaza kulo mzabalazo; kwezenguquko eJalimane asebenze engapho. Lokho „kuwukuphuma kwelaseGibhithe“ ayekade ezindla ngakho waze kwakufeza ngoMeyi kowe-1831. Iphephandaba iAugsburgische Allgemeine Zeitung uselisebenzela njengentatheli eseseParis: uHeine usengunontandakubukwa ezitaladini nasemashibhini naseminyuziyemu nasezinkundleni zabahlabeleli nezabadlali emzinikazi omkhulu waseYurophu. Ngowe-1835 usecelwa ngomunye wabangani bakhe ukuthi akachaze ngesimo sezolwazi kwezombusazwe nezenhlakanipho kwelaseJalimane. Wayivuma inselelo uHeine. Eziqeshini ezintathu ezilandelanayo iphephandaba laseParis iRevue des deux mondes layethula emphakathini yomithathu imibhao kaHeine ethi „De L‘ Allemagne depuis Luther“ – „NgelaseJalimane kusukela kuLuther“.

Le mibhalo isivela-ke isibukeziwe phakathi noMasingana kowe-1835 kwaCampe eHamburg phansi kwesihloko esithi Ngomlando wezoLwazi ngezeNkolo nezeNhlakanipho eJalimane, emva kokucutshungulwisiswa yizingqapheli zasemthethweni. Ngonzulukazi kuyo yonke eseyakeyalotshwa lo mlando ngezoLwazi ngeNkolo nangezeNhlakanipho, owawukade uzilotshelelwe-nje abomphakathi waseFransi ababefisa ukwazi ukuthi kweziwa yini ukuthi amaJalimane ajule kangaka kwezolwazi ngokwengqondo kodwa abesemuva ngokuhlasimulisa kangaka ekukhuthalelweni kwezombusazwe. UHeine uchaza kanje-ke:

Imbongi: „Ngibona sengathi isizwe esinobunono njengathi kwakuvele kufanele siqale ngoCandulo, sedlulele ekudingideni ezeNhlakanipho sesisuka lapho, kuthi uma sesiqedé lapho kube yilapho-ke sesedlulela kwezezinguquko kwezombusazwe. Kungale nqubo lapho sekwavela khona amandla enguquko okunamuhla lokhu asalindele ithuba lawo lapho ayodlubulundela khona azamazise umhlaba ngokuthuthunyelelwa nangokuthakaselwa.“

Oxoxayo: KwezoLwazi ngezeNkolo lo mbhalo kaHeine ubunganakekile kangako muva-nje, kodwa-ke ngoNyaka kaLuther ngowe-2017 kuzofanele bawufundisise bonke oSolwazi nowonkewonke. Uqukethe eyakwanokusho imithemelezo encoma abalobi bezinkondlo kanye noSolwazi bakwelaseJalimane, ikakhulukazi uMartin Luther, ngokunjalo noLessing, noMendelssohn noKant. Kule ndlela uHeine abadumisa ngayo laba bafo, ehamba ihambe ifune ukuvezelwa insini, kuningi umuntu angakufunda: Lokhu okungathi uzama ukukuchazela amaFrentshi, eqinisweni ukuqondisé kwabakubo!

Ngokunjalo-ke uHeine uLuther umbeka njengomlweli wenkululeko owakhulula elaseJalimane ebugqilini baseRoma ngaphandle kokuthi aphambukele emazwini athile kwezobuzwe nakwezabenkolo anochuku.

Imbongi: „Mhla uLuther ememezela ukungavumelani kwakhe nokudunyiswa kwesikhundla sikaPhapha, kwasa kabusha kwelaseJalimane. Lagqabuka ifindo uBonifatius oNgcwele ayakade ebophelelé ngalo iSonto [laseJalimane] eRoma – kwehlukana inhloko nesixhanti!“

Oxoxayo: Ngokunjalo wethulwa ngephimbo lobugagu obuphambili nomlando wokungena kukaLuther eNkundleni yaseWorms ngesihlabelelo esithi `INkosi yethu iyinqaba´

Imbongi: „Laliyisiqubulo sempi isihlabelelo sokuzigqaja angena ngaso eWorms, yena nababemphelekezela. ISontokazi elikhulu lakhona lazamazama ngalokhu ukuhlabelala okusha, namagwababa ezidlekeni zawo zansondo ethuka. Leyo ngoma, osekwaba yiyona Ngoma yomkhankaso woCandulo [Reformation], sekwaba yiyo yiyo kuze kube namuhla lokhu.

Oxoxayo: Usezibiza-ke umlobi waleyo ncwadi iziqephu zesihlabelelo `INkosi yethu iyinqaba´, ngasinye ngasinye njengoba zisemi kanjalo nanamuhla lokhu eSihlabelelweni seBandla lamaLuthela. Eyokungena eWorms ayisilo iqiniso, yaqanjwa ngobugagu obubabazekayo. Ukuthi uHeine engxoxweni yakhe uLuther amhlabelelise `INkosi yethu iyinqaba´ kuhlanekezela umlando ngamabomu. Ingani phela le ngoma uLuther – njengoba kwaziwa – wayisungula [eminyakeni eminingi emva kwalokho] ngowe-1529, isiqhubeka kahle indaba yomkhankaso woCandulo, sekudingeka isihlabelelo esiyivuthelayo imvuselelo kwezenkolo.

Ngokunjalo unandisa ingxoxo yobuhlabani bukaLuther, yobuqhawe kwezenkolo, ngokuthi inkulumo kaLuther eNkundleni yaseWorms, uLuther okwafanela ayethule ngesiJalimane nangesiLathini (ngoba uMbusi uKarl engasazi isiJalimane), ayenze iphethwe ngokwethulwa kokhamba lomqombothi, kwaqalwa kwaphuzwa.

Imbongi: `Wafa bo [uLuther] ukoma!´ kusho uMbusi wesiFundazwe saseBraunschweig [ngokwengxoxo kaHeine], okuthiwa-ke wamphuthumisela edlangalaleni lakhe izinkamba ezintathu zotshwala basesihluzweni esaziswayo saseEinbeck. `Angisoze ngasilibala isenzo somusa ongaka seNdlu yaseBraunschweig!´“

Oxoxayo:
ULuther, iqhawe ekuzabalazeleni inkululeko? Osho njalo uyiziba ngamabomu imfundiso yakhe yemiBuso-Mbili enokuzithandekisa ngobuncelebana kwabasezikhundleni eziphakeme kanye nokuvuna nokuzimbandakanyisa kwakhe nababusi-zifundazwe nokulwisana kwakhe nayo yonke imizabalazo yenkululeko emphakathini. Ngokuphikisana noMarx, othi umzabalazo wezokholo usufiké esiphethweni sawo, uHeine ubona amandla asekhona kuwo, angase awufukule umzabalazo wenkululeko osaqhubekayo. UHeine uLuther umncomela ukufakezela kwakhe ukholo, uthi „ongazama ukumelana naye angabe kwayena egalela ngokucaphuna ebhaybhelini qobo nòma-ke ngezizathu ezizwakalisisayo.“ Yilolo lwazi-ke uLuther [ngokusho kukaHeine] aphemba ngalo umkhankaso wokukhululeka kwengqondo, imiphumela yayo muva-nje [1700-1800] okwasekuyinkululeko kwezolwazi lwemfundo kanje nezenhlakanipho kwelaseJalimane okwakuvumelekile ukuyiqhuba nasezifundazweni-mbuso zangaleyo nkathi. Nangengcindezelo yamuva [Vormaerz-Zensur], kwayena ayehlushwa yiyo, uthi uHeine.

Imbongi:
„Le ngxaki ixazululeka lula, uma ukhumbula ukuthi, inkululeko yokuloba nokufunda amaphephandaba ayehluké ngalutho kokuwumphumela wenkululeko yengqondo, okuyilungelo lobuphrothestanti!“

Oxoxayo:
UHeine ufisa sengathi kungashesha kuvele abathile eJalimane, abangalisukela phansi, bazabalazele ukuliqhakamisa leli lungelo lobuphrothestanti.

ULuther, ngokubona kukaHeine, akasilo-nje kuphela iqhawe kwezenkululeko, okwedlulele kulokho „ungumuntu ongenasici – ophelele, phaqa!“

Uchaza ukuthini uHeine ngalokho? Isibonakaliso sobuKhristu uHeine uthi usithola ekuphikisaneni kwabo noqobo lomzimba [lokwenyama] nolomphefumulo. Ukuzizilela nokuzinyeza kwezomhlaba, okuyikhona okunyundela okwenyama kudumise okomphefumulo. ISonto lobuKhristu nòma lalilwisana nabasunguli bale ngqondo eqhathanisayo, amaManikheya namaGnostikha, lathi bangabaphikisi bokholo okungasenabudlelwano nabo, ingqondo yokuqhwagayisana kwezindima ezimbili kwezokholo, yobuHle neyobuBi, yaqhubeka yanda eSontweni.

Lokhukuqakanyiswa komphefumulo nokugciwazwa komzimba kwabanjengesifo ontwini jikelele. UHeine-ke yena ubona emlandweni weSonto nasemlandweni womhlaba impi phakathi kwezomphefumulo nezenyama. Kule mpi uqhathanisa uCandulo ngokwenqubo yobuluthela noLuther ngoqobo lwakhe – ikakhulukazi kule ndima elandelayo:

Imbongi:

„Insizwa leyo
ibiphoxa, ihlambalaze khona manje-nje njengomfazi wasesithenjini,
ijike masinya-nje futhi ibe nzushunzushu kuhle kwetshitshi eleneme.
Yayike idlondlobale kuhle kwesiwenguwengu esingcothula izindlulamithi,
isheshe ithobe futhi kuhle koMntwana ezincokolela ezincamisa.
Yayithuthumela ekumkhonzeni ngokwesaba oPhezukonke,
inokuzinikela kuMoya oNgcwele ngokumangalisayo,
ikwazi ukuzijulisa kwezoMphefumulo ngokuphelele;
injalo-nje ibe ibazisisa,
ikwazi futhi ukubuthakasela nokuzidelisa
ngobuhle nobukhazikhazi bezomhlaba,
okuthiwa saphinyiselwa yiyo nalesi siqubulo esithi:
`Ongaluthandi uphuzo, abafazi nokuhlabelela,
uyisiphukuphuku saphakade.´
Yayingumuntu ophelele, angithi-nje umuntu ongenasici,
umphefumulo nenyama kuye okwakungenakwehlukaniseka.“

 Oxoxayo: Yizithakezelo ezimnandi lezi okungavamisile ukuthi uzizwe kwabaseLuthela. Lesi siqubulo ngophuzo nabafazi nokuhlabelela okuthiwa saphinyiselwa nguLuther, asitholakali nokho kokwalotshwa nguye, size sivele kokwalotshwa nguHeinrich Voß eminyakeni engamakhulu amabili nanhlanu [250] eyalandela. Sishaya emhlolweni nokho ngesasasa le nsizwa eyayiyihlangabeza ngayo impilo.

Ukuthi uLuther eseguga wayechukuza, elwisana ngolaka oluvuthayo nabalimi emzabalazweni wabo ngomhlaba wabo, esejwayele ukujivaza nokudikibalisa, amaSulumane namaJuda ewachapha ngenhlamba ewagcona, nokubhubha komhlaba ekubona sekusondele, akakuphathi konke lokho uHeine.

Ngendlela ekitizayo uHeine uchaza inqubo nemiphumela yoCandulo emfundisweni kwezenkolo nasempilweni ebandleni:

Imbongi: „Umfundisi uba ngumuntu-nje naye, athathe umfazi, amzalise abantwana njengomthetho kaSmakade. USmakade yena-ke abe yimpohlo yasezulwini engenabani; kuyangatshazwa nokuthi indodana yakhe ngeyakhe; abangcwele bayafulathelwa; izingelosi zinqunywa amaphiko; unina kankulunkulu ulahlekelwa yiwo wonke amalungelo aphathelene nesicoco sasezulwini, uyenqatshelwa ukwenza izimangaliso.“

Oxoxayo: Empeleni lo umhambi wamazwe, umlobi uHeine, owaziselwa ukulandelana kwakhe nabesifazane, uyakwazi ukubaluleka kwekhaya nomuzi wakwamfundisi, impatho enhle umhambi emukelwa ngayo khona kanye nobuhle obumangalisayo bamadodakazi omfundisi:

Imbongi: „Kungafanele-nje uzihambele ngezinyawo sengathi uyisitshudeni-nje esingenamali uzithungathele lonke elaseNhla neJalimane ukuze uzizwise ngobuqotho, (angifake isabizwana lapho ukuze kuzwakale ngconywana), ngobuqotho bobuphrothestanti emzanyaneni onganakekile-nje ekhaya kwamfundisi. Kukangaki-nje ngokuhwalala ebusika ngemukeleka ngomusa ngiyimpabanga yomhambi ongenalutho esandleni, ozilambele-nje, okhathele! Sengidlile ngesutha emva kokulala kahle, sengizoqhubeka nohambo ngakusasa ekuseni, aqhamuke umnumzane umfundisi esevukile, anginike isibusiso sikandela-nhle, esingakaze singilethele amashwa; nomkamfundisi onomusa omangalisayo, iphoshophosho, angithukuzele izincezu zesinkwa ezinebhotela ekhukhwini, engingekweye ukungilulamisa kwazo; buqamamanyana-nje kumi okungamatshitshi okungamadodakazi kamfundisi nezihlathi zakho ezikhazimulayo namehlwana eyizindoni zamanzi, amalangabi amahloni akho ayeyifudumeza inhliziyo yami ekuwakhumbuleni kwami usuku lonke ebusika lobo.“

Oxoxayo: Okwesithathu, uHeine uncoma uLuther, umakhi wolwimi. ULuther amaJalimane akawaphanga-nje kuphela inkululeko, wawafumbathisa nekhambi layo:

Imbongi: „Umqondo wawethasisela ngeZwi. Wasungula ulwimi lwesiJalimane. Lokho kwenzeka ngokuhumusha kwakhe ibhaybheli.“

Oxoxayo: UHeine ukubona kubalulekile ukuthi asho ukuthi lokho kwenzeka ngoba amaJuda – njengokuwabiza kwakhe, „lezi zidwanyampuphu, imikhovu le eyayilokhu igoye emigedeni yayo eminyama lapho yayigqumé khona ibhaybheli elingolwimi lwesiHebheru.“ Izifundiswa zamaJalimane [kuqhubeka uHeine belu] zehla, zewukela kulezo zingoxingoxi, ukuyofunda ulwimi lwesiHebheru. Ngenhlanhla, ngenkuthalo kasolwazi kwezenhlakanipho ngoqobo nenhlalisano yontu, uJohann Reuchlin, ebhekene namaDominikhana [abanye benkolo yobuRoma] ayehlasele, ehlose ukushabalalisa imibhalo engolwimi lwesiHebheru esifundazweni esigudlé umfulakazi iRhein, wakwazi uLuther ukuthi aqale ngokuhumusha esusa ezincwadini zendabuko. Aqhubeke uHeine athi:

Imbongi: „Ukuthi uLuther walufunda kanjani lolu lwimi ahumusha ngalo, akuqondakali kimi kuze kube namhla lokhu.“

Oxoxayo: Umbono ofakazekelayo wokuthi ulwimi lukaLuther lwenciké esiJalimaneni esasikhulunywa emahhovisi ombuso wesifundazwe sakubo eSachsen ngalezo zikhathi, uyawuphebeza uHeine. Mhlawumbe uthatha ngokuthi nakuLuther kunokwambulelwa okuthile okwamlethela lolu lwimi lobugagu nolochwephesho.

Imbongi: „Ofisa ukuxoxa ngolwazi lwezincwadi lwaseJalimane, kufanele aqale kuLuther, angasuki-nje adukele mhlawumbe kosiyazi baseNuernberg njengoHans Sachs.“

Oxoxayo: Indikimba yalolo lwazi ngokwenhlakanipho emibhalweni yakwelaseJalimane yimpi kwababebangisana kwezoCandulo. Uqinisile uHeine ukuthi lwaqala ngokuhlabelela enkonzweni. „Umoya ojulile wokuzazisa, ukuzizwa ngobuwena“ kodwa, njengoba uHeine ebalula, wudaba lobukholwa ngokwenzondelelo [Pietismus].

UHeinrich Heine-ke kodwa uyaxoxa nangokukhombisa imingcele nokwehluleka kuMartin Luther nokukhombisa okuncomekayo emizamweni yoPhapha ukuvuselela kwezokholo nasemphakathini. ULuther, ekulwisaneni kwakhe nomkhankaso kaPhapha neSonto laseRoma wokuqoqa izimali okwakuthiwa zingumnikelo wokuthethelwa kwezono nokushwelezela izihlobo esezashona ukuze zedluliswe esihogweni, ziyongenga ezulwini, wayengamqondisisanga kahle uPhapha uLeo weShumi [ngokubona kukaHeine]. Lo mkhankaso wawungenansolo wona, ngoba, yilowo nalowo owayezizwa esindwa yisiphambeko kunembeza wakhe, wayezizwa efisa ukuthola ithuba lokuphumuza umphefumulo, intethelelo kuleso siphambeko. Ngokunjalo-ke ukwakhiwa kweSontokazi lamaRoma, iPetersdom, ngezimali zalo mnikelo wentethelelo kuzifanela-nje nokuthi lelo sonto lakhiwa lakhokhelwa nguSathane.

Indlela enamancoko uHeine alwethula ngalo udaba loCandulo
abayithakaselelanga osolwazi abaningi kwezenkolo,
yingakho-nje nendlela axoxa ngayo ngoLuther beyiziba.

Nokubhala okuziqondelayo-nje kukaHeine kanye nokuhlekisa kwakhe ngabakholiweyo kwenza bamshalazele. Ukuthi udaba noma lunzima lungethulwa ngendlela encokolayo njengoma uMinna von Barnheim kaLessing esho kuTellheim, kwakungajwayelekile eJalimane. Umlobi, uTheodor Mundt, wayethukuthele ebila ngowe-1837 ngenkathi ebeka umbandela ethi:

Imbongi: „Akungigculisi mina ukuthi udaba olunzulu lunandiswe, luhlotshiswe ngamancoko kangangoba nezalukazanyana esezasheshe zazithathela impesheni kanye nomame bemisebenzi yezandla bazifundele-nje ngentokozo baze bagcine sebethé: Sesiluqondisisa kahle udaba lwezolwazi ngezenhlakanipho.“
Oxoxayo: Kafuphi: Indlela uLuther ethulwa ngayo nguHeine, nòma inokungaphelelisisi kahlehle, inamancoko laphaya nalaphaya, yiyona esemqoka nenzulu kunazo zonke ezinye ngalomcanduli wodumo, okudabukisayo ukuthi ayibatholanga abalandeli.

Kugcina kusele udaba oludingidwa kuphindelelwa kwabenqubo yobuphrothestanti muva-nje: Insolo kaLuther kumaJuda. UHeine ekumdumiseni kwakhe akayiphathi eyokuthi uLuther wayeloba izincwadi ezichukuluza nezihlambalaza amaJuda, njengalena yonyaka we-1534 ethi `AmaJuda naManga Awo´. Kuleyo ncwadi ugqugqumezela ukuthi amaJuda akhishwe ngendluzula, axoshwe ezifundazweni zabaseLuthela, izindlu zawo zomkhuleko [amasinagogi] zithungelwe ngomlilo. Kungenzeka ukuthi uHeiner wayengazazi lezo zincwadi. Okwakukade kulotshwé nguLuther kwasekwakhohlakala, kungasazeki kangako, kwabeSonto nakwabezolwazi ngezenkolo kanye nasemphakathini-jikelele ngezikhathi kuze kube sekupheleni kwenkathi yeminyaka eyinkulungwane namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye [1800-1900].

Kwakukhona khona emphakathini ukuwaqhubukusha nokuwazonda amaJuda okwakwandile kanye nakwabasemasontweni, lokho kwayena uHeine akhononda ngakho. Kodwa kwathi ngokukhululeka kwawo ekubandlululweni, esengena nawo ezikhundleni ezaziswayo kwezomnotho, nezochwephesho nezolwazi, kwavela-ke ukuwazonda ngokwedlulele amaJuda: Kanjalo eqenjini lezepolitiki likaMshumayeli uStoecker ngowe-1880, iChristlich-Soziale Partei. Eminyakeni engamashumi amahlanu emva kwalokho kwasuka uMbhishobhi uMartin Sasse wesifundazwe saseThuringeni [khona eJalimane] wagqugqumezela ekakhukhulelangoqo eyabhebhezela isibhicongo somhla ka-10 Novemba kowe-1938, esibizwa namuhla ngokuthi yiReichskristallnacht, ethi lokho kuwukufeza inkokhelo kaLuther, ayemthopha ethi „yingqalabutho nobhongoza kontanga yakhe kwabazonda nabaphokophele ukushabalalisa amaJuda“.

Ngenkathi uHeine ayephila kuyo le nzondo nentshisekelo kaLuther yokushabalalisa amaJuda yayingakanabikho esithombeni abaningi ababenaso ngomcanduli wodumo uLuther.

Emkhankasweni wokushumayeza amaJuda kwelasePreussen [ukuze aguqulelwe enkolweni yobuKhristu], eBerlin kwase kuneqembu „iNhlangano yokuGuqula amaJuda“, uHeine ayayeyenza inhlekisa. Engxoxweni yakhe yezithombe esihloko sithi `Umuzi waseLucca´ [`Die Stadt Lucca´] uHeine ubuzwa yintokazi yeNtaliyane, uFrancesca, ayixoxela ngomuzi waseBerlin, le enhla kwelibandayo, nezenkolo kwabakhona – imbuza imangele, ithi:

„Kanti bangamaKhristu yini abaseBerlin?“

UHeine uyayiphendula:

Imbongi: „Inezihibe zayo-nje le eyenkolo yobuKhristu. Abanandaba nayo. Bahlakaniphé ngokwenele-ke ukuthi bangaké bayikhuthalele. Kodwa-ke ngoba bayazi ukuthi ubuKhristu budingekile ekubusweni kwezwe ukuze ababuswayo bavumele umthetho ngokuzithoba nanokuthi kungantshontshwa kubulawane kakhulu, bakhuthalela okungenani ukuguqula abakhelene nabo, bazama ukuthola ongababambela leso sikhundla ekukholweni okungabakhandla kakhulu uma bengaké bakwenze. Kulokhu kuxineka-ke sebezisebenzisela inkuthalo yamaJuda azihluphekelayo; yiwo-ke osekufanele angenele amaJalimane ekubeni ngamaKhristu, okuthi-ke njengoba lesi sizwe sivuma ukwenza noma yini uma usinika imali namazwana amnanjana, asengené agamanxa-ke amaJuda kwezobuKhristu, kangangoba asekhononda engaqedi ngokungakholwa, ezinkonzweni asenikina amakhanda, enyukubeza ubuso, ekhuleka ngokubukisa nenhlokomo enkulu.“

Oxoxayo: UHeine, kwayena owaguqukela kweyobuKhristu, uxoxa encokola ngokwakwenzeka eJalimane ngalezo zikhathi emkhankasweni wokuchushisa nokuxhasa abakhethiweyo [Assimilation] kwababengamaJuda. AmaJuda aba ngamaKhristu, ikakhulukazi amaphrothestanti, alukhuthalela ukholo lwawo olusha. Nokho akusizanga konke lokho sekudlongobala inzondo ephokophele ukuwashabalalisa amaJuda [Antisemitismus] eJalimane, esebandlululwa ebulawa sekubuswa ngonya ngendluzula yokuzigqaja ngobuzwe [Nationalsozialismus]: Maningi amaJuda ayesebhajadisiwe okwathi nawo abandlululwa kulandelwa imithetho emisha, kwahlwithwa ilungelo lobuzwe, agudlukiselelwa emaxhokovaneni, agcina exoshiwe, ebulewe. Kukho konke lokho ayabukelelwa ngisho nayiSonto lawo laseLuthela ayekade ezinikelé aphendukela kulo ngokulethemba nokulazisa noma ayekade ezalelwe akhulela khona engabantwana bamaJuda ayesengamaKhristu.

Ngalokho-ke kwafezeka ngendlela ehlasimulisa umzimba lokhu uHeine akusho ngowe-1851 ngamaJuda aphoqeleka ukuziphilisa ngokwebolekisa imali:

Imbongi: „AmaJuda aphoqelelwé umthetho ukuthi acebe, azondwe, abulawe.“

Oxoxayo: La masonto azibiza ngokuthi ngawaseluthela, efuzisa kumcanduli amhlonipha kakhulukazi, ehluleka odabeni olwaluphathelene nesimo samaJuda [Judenfrage] njengoba uBonhoeffer abalula ngowe-1933. Kwayena sengathi wayengayazi le mibhalo kaLuther equkethe unya nenzondo yamaJuda. Ingabe amakholwa aseLuthela ayayoqhuba ngenye indlela na, ukuba umCanduli wayethe:

Yilowo kuphela
osukumela ukuwavikela amaJuda
ovumelekile ukuhlabelela izingoma ezalotshwa yimi!“?

[USolwazi uDokotela uHans-Jürgen Benedict osewathatha umhlalaphansi ngowe-2006 wayekade efundisa esikolweni semfundo ephakeme kwezenhlalakahle emphakathini esiphethwe yisonto laseluthela eHamburg ]

o0o

 *UHans-Jürgen Benedict uxoxa ohlelweni lwasemsakazweni eJalimane okuboniswana kulo ngezenkolo iNorddeutscher Rundfunk Religion und Gesellschaft, GLAUBENSSACHEN, ngeSonto ekuseni, zilishumi nesishiyagalombili kuMandulo kophezulu [18.09.2016, 08.40].

 

Imibono nemibuzo: 3 »

Imibono nemibuzo“Umuntu phaqa!” – uMartin Luther emehlweni kaHeinrich Heine«

  1. Bakwethu

    Phela uProfessor uMartin Luther, nozakwabo emkhakheni wokuvuselela ishintsho(ReformaTION) ENKOLWENI NASEMPHAKATHINI wamakhosi amaJalimane, waletha ngempela inkululeko. Yena nabangane balkhe oJohann Gutenberg, owokuqala ukushicilela incwadi(Printing press), imishishovu yenkululeko yolwimi, amasiko, umlando wamaJalimane, belwela inkululeko kubacindezeli bamaRoma, oPhapha bamaRoma, nazo zonke izitha zamaJalimane.

    Uqinisileke uHeinrich Heine uma esikhumbuza ngegalelo lala madoda.
    Macingwane.

  2. Macingwana!

    Okuhle kakhulu-ke kodwa yikuthi okaBenedict, lona osixoxela ngoHeine ekwaziseni kwakhe uLuther, usivula amehlo ngokuthile uLuther okufanele asolwe ngakho – njengokusho kwabadala phela ukuthi akukho soka lingenasici: Inhlamba nenzondo kaLuther kubantukazana emzabalazweni wabo wokuvikela amasimu namadlelo abo ekuhlwithweni ngababusi bangalezo zikhathi kanye nenhlamba nenzondo yakhe kwabenkolo yobuJuda okwathi ngokuqhubeka komlando yavunwa yenazezelwa yizinswelaboya zoHitler nabalandeli bazo ezacishe zashiya kuvalwé ngehlahla emhlabeni jikelele.

    Uyibekile induku ebandla okaBenedict ngale ngxoxwana asethulele yona.

    Niphile bo!

    Yithi kwaMachanca.