Umlando ngoqukethwe eNcwadini “uEsta”

28.03.2015
uEsta

Nòma iNcwadi “uEsta” yafakwa enqolobaneni yezincwadi zomlando ethestamenteni elidala [ThD], yehlukile kuzo ngoba ixoxa ngezehlakalo ezingesiyo imibiko enobufakazi. Nokho kungenzeka ukuthi kulezi zingxoxo kunezimo okwakungenzeka ukuthi zazidamane zivela ezikhathini ezilandela inkathi kusekudingisweni kwelaseBhabhiloni, okwakungaba sonyakeni wamakhulu amahlanu namashumi amathathu nesishiyagalolunye [539 ph.Khr.] lapho kwakunenzondo nokuhlukumeza okwakuqondiswé kwabakaJuda kwelasePhereshiya.

Igama lombusi uAhashiveroshi [Esta 1,1] laziwa kangcono ngokuthathelwa kolwesiGrikhi ngokuthi “nguXerxesi” [Xerxes].  Kuyoba nguXerxesi wokuQala [Xerxes I] (486-465 ph.Khr.) lona okuxoxwa ngaye lapha, okungukuthi okuqukethwe kule Ncwadi kwenzeka enkathini yamakhulu amahlanu eminyaka ngaphambi kwale nkathi esiphila kuyo [500 ph.Khr.]. Kungenzeka ukuthi kwaqalwa ukuthi ziqoshwe phansi lezi zingxoxo emva kokuwa kombuso wabasePhereshiya, abasePhereshiya bengasesatshwa njengakuqala, okwakuyinkathi yombuso kaAleksanda oMkhulu (owakhothama ngowamakhulu amathathu namashumi amabili nantathu ngaphambi kwale nkathi esiphila kuyo – 323 ph.Khr.).

Zimbili izehlakalo okungathi yizona ezaholela ekulotshweni kwale ncwadi: Esokuqala ukwanda nokudlongobala kwenzondo eyayiqondaniswé nabakwaJuda kwelasePhereshiya, izizathu zakho ezingeqondakale. Mhlawumbe le nzondo yayibangwa yinkolo nangamasiko abakwaJuda, lokho okwakungathakaselisiswa ngabanye kwelasePhereshiya, ukunengenka okwasekwandé nezwe.  Esesibili kwakungukuthi abakwaJuda babevamile ukubekwa ezikhundleni eziphambili ekuphathweni komphakathi [ngenxa yokuzimisela nokukhuthala kwabo], belawula kokuningi ekubusweni kwezwe.  OEzra noNehemiya nabo babesezikhundleni eziphakeme embusweni wasePhereshiya. Kule Ncwadi “uEsta”-ke kusuka owesifazane kwabakwaJuda uthatha indlela eya komkhulu. Yile mininingwane-ke ezenza kuxoxeke udaba lokuphumelela koyedwana-nje, owayekade engebani nokuba ngubani,  waphokophela, wazuzu ukwaziseka nokuhlonipheka, wagcina ephumelele ukuhlenga isizwe sakubo ezingozini nasolakeni emphakathini ononya nenzondo.

INcwadi “uEsta” ingenye yezazidamane zivela, zilotshwa, kwabakwaJuda ababakhé kude nakwelakubo, “emaphandleni” [“kwaMfaz’ ongeMama”] (= `diaspora´), lapho abakwaJuda babeyayebazithole behlengeka, besinda olakeni  “bekude nakweliNgcwele”, behlengeka ngenxa yentshisekelo nokuzilahla amathambo kwabambalwa-nje.

Oyifundayo le Ncwadi uqala adideke ngenxa yezigigaba eziningi nabathile okuxoxwa ngabo, kuya le, kuya le. Ngamafuphi ibekeka kanje:

UWashthi, owayesesigodlweni senkosi uAhashiveroshi, owayenzé idili komkulu eSusa, wenqaba ukuvela azobukwa abatshazelwe ubuhle bakhe yizivakashi eziphakeme ezazimenyelwé ngowakwakhe kulelo dili; waxoshwa lapho-ke endlunkulu, wamphelela umendo. Usesuka-ke uAhashiveroshi usemema izintombi ezazelwa ubuhle bazo kulo lonke ukuthi zizoziveza, azibone, ukuze azikhethele ezomgana, ibe yindlovukazi yakhe. Kulapho-ke afike wazithandela khona uEsta, engazi ukuthi ungumJudakazi.

UEsta wayekade ekhululelé emzini kaModikhayi, ephathwa njengendodakazi yakhona, okuthiwa kwakungabozalo bemindeni eyaqhwagwa ngumbusi uNebhukhedinezari, wayixosha, yayodingiswa kwelaseBhabhiloni onyakeni wamakhulu amahlanu namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nesikhombisa phambi kwale nkathi esiphila kuyo [597 ph.Khr.].  Lo mlisa-ke, uModikhayi, wakwazi ukuthi ngezikhathi uEsta esekhuphuké waze wangena komkhulu, adalule ezomshoshaphansi ezithile ezazijongé uAhashiveroshi.  Emva kwalokho wenqaba uModikhayi ukukhothamela uHamani njengokwemfanelo yakomkhulu, akhombise inhlonipho. UHamani kwathi uma ezwa ukuthi uModikhayi lo kanti uliJuda, wathatha isinqumo sokuthi abulawe – yena nawo wonke nje-ke omunye oliJuda ezweni lonke. Kwashaywa unkatha [= ngolwesiHebheru: púr], kwakhonjwa usuku lweshumi nantathu [13] enyangeni uAdari [uNhlolanja/uNdasa], okwakuyoba ngolukamnqamula-juqu (Esta 3,7). UAhashiveroshi wamnika uHamani igunya lokusifeza leso sinqumo.

UModikhayi wabikela uEsta ngokuhloswé nguHamani. UEsta waqonda kumyeni wakhe ngqo, akalindela ukuthi acele adedelwe ngabathile ukuya kuye njengokwenqubo yakomkhulu, wayoshwelezela abakwaJuda.

UEsta wamema inkosi [umyeni wakhe], wamema noHamani, ebenzelé idili elalizothatha izinsuku ezimbili. Kwathi uma emva kosuku lwesibili lwedili uModikhayi ephinda enqaba ukukhothamela uHamani ngengokwenqubo yakomkhulu yokumkhombisa inhlonipho emfanele, uHamani wanquma ukuthi anqunywe ngakusasa. Engakakhulumi nanenkosi ngalokho, wayesethé azigxunyekwe izigxobo ayezokhungwa, anqunyelwe kuzo. Kuselapho nje-ke inkosi isikhunjuzwa ngezomshoshaphansi eyayikade isongelwe ngawo ngababesophé ukuphekula umbuso, owanqandeka ngokudalulwa kwazo nguModikhayi – ikhunjuzwa ngabayifundela njengenhlalayenza okulotshwé ngezansukuzonke komkhulu. UAhashiveroshi usejuba uHamani kulokho, emyalela ukuthi akaklomele uModikhayi, amethwese iminyezane ukuze aziswe, ahlonipheke embusweni wonke.  Khuliyane esikhundleni uModikhayi!

Esekhona lapho-nje uHamani, uEsta usenxusa umyeni wakhe, inkosi, ukuthi iwahlenge amaJuda, angabhujiswa njengoba uHamani ayesenqumé ukuthi abulawe, aqedwe.

Ngethutshana-nje kulokho inkosi isaphumile, uHamani washaya phansi ngedolo, ezincengela kuEsta ukuthi amshwelezele enkosini.

Uma iphinda iqhamuka inkosi, ibona sengathi uHamani ubesezama ukuqilibeza uEsta, ngokusondela amlimaze. Ngokuphazima kweso kwalengiswa uHamani ezigxotsheni okwakukade kuzobulawelwa kuzo uModikhayi, kwaba ukuphela kwakhe lokho.

UEsta wazuza ifa likaHamani, uModikhayi wangena esikhundleni abesiphethwe uHamani esaphila.

Kwavalwa ngehlahla!

Ngokwesifiso sikaEsta, inkosi yalawula, yavumela amaJuda ukuthi ngosuku lweshumi nantathu kuNhlolanja/kuNdasa [13 Adar] akhwele azidilikele kozama ukubachukuluza. Kwavalwa ngehlahla ngalolo lusuku nangakusasa [13/14 Adar]. Izinkulungwane zezakhamizi eSusa nakulo lonke elasePhereshiya zahlaselwa, zabulawa ngamaJuda. Usuku olulandela lolo [15 Adar] lwamiswa, lwaba usuku lomkhosi; emaphandleni kwakuze kube ngakusasa kwalokho [16 Adar]. UModikhayi noEsta bafungisa amaJuda ngothi lwawo, bawabophelela ekulugcineni lolo lusuku lomcimbi `wePhumalimi´ [ngolwesiHebheru = purim], `uMcimbi kaPhindamshaye´, owawuvelé ngenxa yonkatha [ngolwesiHebheru = púr | purím] owawukade ushayelwé ukuqopha usuku lokuwabhubhisa ngothi lwawo amaJuda kwelasePhereshiya.

Nasezikhathini zakudala kwakuvunyelwana kalula-nje kwabayifundayo le Ncwadi “uEsta”.  Ingenye phela yezokugcina ezekhethelwa ukufakwa ethestamenteni elidala [ThD]. Le ngxoxo eyakheké ngobugagu, nòma-ke igcina ngesigemegeme esihlasimulisa umzimba nanamuhla lokhu, yahamba yahamba yagcina ithandekile nayo kwabayifundayo. Isizathu esisemqoka sokukhethelwa kwayo enqolobaneni yemiBhalo eNgcwele `uMcimbi kaPhind’ amshaye´ (= `uMcimbi wePhumalimi´, ngolwesiHebheru = púr | purím) okwahamba kwahamba wagcina usugujwa ngokwandile minyaka-yonke, umsuka wawo ochazwa kule Ncwadi “uEsta”. Ibifundwa ifundisiswa, kumenyezelwe ngayo, le Ncwadi ngosuku lwalo mcimbi. Nanamuhla lokhu lusagujwa lolu suku lomcimbi `kaPhind’ amshaye´ kwabenkolo ngobuJuda, nòma-ke sekwaba lusuku lokwesasa nokuzijabulisa-nje, kudliwe, kuphuzwe, kuhlotshwe, kwenanwe.

Umcimbi `kaPhind’ amshaye´ awusiwo owobuJuda ngendabuko, izimpande zawo zikwelaseMesophothamya noma kwelasePhereshiya – emazweni abakwaJuda ababequbé khona njengengcosana eyayixoshelwé khona ekudingisweni enkathini eyela emakhulwini ayisithupha phambi kwale nkathi esiphila kuyo [~600 ph.Khr.]. AbakwaJuda bawuthola lapho lo mkhuba wokushaya unkatha okuqoshwa ngawo usuku lokufeza isigwebo esikhishwé odabeni oluthile [njengokuhlasela nokubhubhisa], abakwaJuda base bewuthatha, bewuqondanisa nesimo sabo, bephemba lo mkhosi `kaPhindamshaye´.  Nemiphakathi yabakwaJuda eyayakhé ePhalestina ngezikhathi ezingaphambidlana nokuzalwa kukaJesu, yalemukela, yaliqhuba leli siko. Esinye sezifakaziselo zalokho sitholakala esahlukweni seshumi nanhlanu eNcwadini yesiBili “uMakhabheya” [2 Makha 15,3-], lapho kukhulunywa khona “ngoMkhosi kaModikhayi”.

namuhla

Kwabenkolo ngokobuJuda namuhla `uMcimbi kaPhind’ amshaye´ (= `uMcimbi wePhumalimi´, ngolwesiHebheru = púr | purím) umkhosi wentokozo nokwenaba, kujatshulelwa ikakhulukazi ukuthi izitha – njengoHamani emlandweni abaxoxelana ngawo – ziyogcina zibhubhile.  Ezigigabeni eziningi besongelwa, bephunyuka ekubhujisweni, babona ngosuku lwalelo mkhosi ithuba lokuphulukundleliswa nokuhlengwa kulo lonke ulaka nonya olunjalo nangomuso.

Ikakhulukazi ofunda ngeso lenkolo yobuKhristu uthola isiboniso kule Ncwadi “uEsta” sokuthi izinsongelo nezihibe kuhamba kuhambe zidaluleke, zinyundeleke, zigcine ziguqukile, zakhomba abasunguli nabashoshozeli bazo. Ukuzimisela nentshisekelo yowesifazane owayekade engomunye wabajwayele ukweyiwa nokubukelwa phansi, yiyona eletha inguquko odabeni olwaseluyobe ngunqamula-juqu kwabaningi. Le ngxoxo ibuye ikhumbuzane ngoJosefa, indodana kaJakobe, okwathi abanewabo sebezé bazithela kuye kwelaseGibhithe bengazi, wabemukela, wabathethelela, bahlengeka. Kodwa-ke kuthi engxoxweni ngoJosefa kuké kuthintwe ngenkolo koPhezukonke, eNcwadini “uEsta” ayingenwa leyo.  Akathinteki, akaphathwa nakanye-nje oPhezukonke kule Ncwadi.

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Umtapo wolwazi: isahluko esithi „Das Buch Esther“, encwadini „Die Schriften der Bibel. Entstehung und Botschaft“ elotshwé ngoSiegfried Herrmann noWalter Klaiber, yashiciselwa yiNhlangano yeBhaybheli yaseJalimane [Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft], eStuttgart ngowe-1996, ISBN 3-438-06207-0, kusukela ekhasini lamashumi ayisishiyagalombili nesishiyagalombili kuya kwelamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye [88-90]; sihunyushelwé esiZulwini nguBheni wakwaKhumalo eBaQulusini [Dr Ben Khumalo-Seegelken] eseViyweni leziKhuthali oBanjiswaneni lokuHumusha nokuBhala kabusha iBhaybheli ngesiZulu [Biblia Zuluensis] https://www.biblia-zuluensis.de/ ;   >> uBanjiswano lokuKhuthaza ukuKhulunywa nokuBhalwa kwesiZulu eMphakathini

Imibono nemibuzo: 1 »

Imibono nemibuzoUmlando ngoqukethwe eNcwadini “uEsta”«

  1. […] Kwabenkolo ngokobuJuda namuhla `uMkhosi kaPhind’ amshaye´ (= `uMkhosi wePhumalimi´, ngolwesiHebheru = púr | púrim) umkhosi wentokozo nokwenaba, kujatshulelwa ikakhulukazi ukuthi izitha – njengoHamani emlandweni abaxoxelana ngawo – ziyogcina zibhubhile.  Ezigigabeni eziningi besongelwa, bephunyuka ekubhujisweni, babona ngosuku lwalelo mkhosi ithuba lokuphulukundleliswa nokuhlengwa kulo lonke ulaka nonya olunjalo nangomuso. Ikakhulukazi ofunda ngeso lenkolo yobuKhristu uthola isibonelo kule Ncwadi “uEsta” ukuthi izinsongelo nezihibe kuyenzeka zidaluleke, zinyundeleke, zigcine ziguqukile, zakhomba abasunguli nabashoshozeli bazo. Ukuzimisela nentshisekelo yowesifazane owayekade engomunye wabajwayele ukweyiwa nokubukelwa phansi, yiyona eletha inguquko odabeni olwaseluyobe ngunqamula-juqu kwabaningi. Le ngxoxo ibuye ikhumbuzane ngoJosefa, indodana kaJakobe, okwathi abanewabo sebezé bazithela kuye kwelaseGibhithe bengazi, wabemukela, wabathethelela, bahlengeka. Kodwa-ke kuthi engxoxweni ngoJosefa kuké kuthintwe ngenkolo koPhezukonke, eNcwadini “uEsta” ayingenwa leyo.  Akathinteki, akaphathwa nakanye-nje oPhezukonke kule Ncwadi. [Bheka: Umlando oqukethwe eNcwadini “uEsta”] […]